In 1642 the governor and council of Batavia fitted out two ships to prosecute the discovery of the south land, then believed to be part of a vast Antarctic continent, and entrusted the command to Captain Abel Jansen Tasman.
CORNELIUS JANSEN (1585-1638), bishop of Ypres, and father of the religious revival known as Jansenism, was born of humble Catholic parentage at Accoy in the province of Utrecht on the 28th of October 1585.
Jansen ended by attaching himself strongly to the latter party, and presently made a momentous friendship with a like-minded fellow-student, Du Vergier de Hauranne, afterwards abbot of Saint Cyran.
In the hope of repressing their encroachments, Jansen was sent twice to Madrid, in 1624 and 1626; the second time he narrowly escaped the Inquisition.
Antipathy to the Jesuits brought Jansen no nearer.
But Jansen, as he said, did not mean to be a school-pedant all his life; and there were moments when he dreamed political dreams. He looked forward to a time when Belgium should throw off the Spanish yoke and become an independent Catholic republic on the model of Protestant Holland.
The Mars gallicus did not do much to help Jansen's friends in France, but it more than appeased the wrath of Madrid with Jansen himself; in 1636 he was appointed bishop of Ypres.
By 1642 they had spread to South Island, for there Abel Jansen Tasman found them when, in the course of his circuitous voyage from Java in the "Heemskirk," he chanced upon the archipelago, coasted along much of its western side, though without venturing to land, and gave it the name it still bears.
Jansen, bishop of Ypres and the founder of the Jansenist school, is buried in the cathedral.
Jansen, Die Herzogsgewalt der Erzbischiife von Kan in Westfalen (Munich, 1895); Holzapfel, Das Konigreich Westfalen (Magdeburg, 1895); G.
Jansen (1900); Jansen, Bonifacius IX.
The practical discovery of the instrument was certainly made in Holland about 1608, but the credit of the original invention has been claimed on behalf of three individuals, Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Jansen, spectacle-makers in Middelburg, and James Metius of Alkmaar (brother of Adrian Metius the mathematician) .
Jansen and his father were the real inventors of the telescope in 1610, and that Lippershey only made a telescope after hints accidentally communicated to him of the details of Jansen's invention.
The dates of these documents dispose effectually of Borel's statement that Lippershey borrowed the ideas of Jansen in 1610.
This was condemned by certain archbishops and theologians as the repetition of the five condemned propositions of Jansen, and Gerberon defended it, under the name of "Abbe Valentin" in Le Miroir sans tache (Paris, 1680).
The other hand, as Jansen pointed out, free-will tends to make the average man's estimate of his own powers into the supreme criterion of all that is good and right.
Jansen accordingly denounced free-will as dishonouring to God, and destructive of the higher interests of morality.
Jansen answered with his doctrine of Irresistible Grace.
" This holy taste or relish, " says a follower of Jansen, " distinguishes between good and evil without being at the trouble of a train of reasoning; just as the nature and tendency of a heavy body, let fall from a height, shows the way to the centre of the earth more exactly in a moment than the ablest mathematician could determine by his most accurate observations in a whole day."
In the Church of Rome the Dominicans favoured Augustinianism, the Jesuits Semi-Pelagianism; the work of Molina on the agreement of free-will with the gifts of grace provoked a controversy, which the pope silenced without deciding; but which broke out again a generation later when Jansen tried to revive the decaying Augustinianism.
The first grant of land within the present limits of Nyack was made by Governor Philip Carteret, of New Jersey, to one Claus Jansen, in 1671, but the permanent settlement apparently dates from about 1700.
Such an instrument was made as early as 1590 by Zacharias Jansen of Middleburg; and although Galileo discovered, in 1610, a means of adapting his telescope to the examination of minute objects, he did not become acquainted with the compound microscope until 1624 when he saw one of Drebbel's instruments in Rome, and, with characteristic ingenuity, immediately introduced some material improvements into its construction.
JANSENISM, the religious principles laid down by Cornelius Jansen in his Augustinus.
Such doctrines have a marked analogy to those of Calvin; but in many ways Jansen differed widely from the Protestants.
Secondly, although the one thing necessary in religion was a personal relation of the human soul to its maker, Jansen held that that relation was only possible in and through the Roman Church.
But the circumstances of the 17th century were not those of the 5th; and Jansen landed his followers in an inextricable confusion.
Firstly, they denied that Jansen had meant the propositions in the sense condemned.
In 1661 a formulary, or solemn renunciation of Jansen, was imposed on all his suspected followers; those who would not sign it went into hiding, or to the Bastille.
The Jansenists played into their hands by suddenly raising (1701) in the Paris divinity school the question whether it was necessary to accept the condemnation of Jansen with interior assent, or whether a "respectful silence" was enough.