(1440-1490), king of Hungary, also known as Matthias Corvinus, a surname which he received from the raven (corvus) on his escutcheon, second son of Janos Hunyadi and Elizabeth Szilagyi, was born at Kolozsvar, probably on the 23rd of February 1440.
His tutors were the learned Janos Vitez, bishop of Nagyvarad, whom he subsequently raised to the primacy, and the Polish humanist Gregory Sanocki.
The last days of Matthias were occupied in endeavouring to secure the succession to the throne for his illegitimate son Janos (see Corvinus, Janos); but Queen Beatrice, though childless, fiercely and openly opposed the idea and the matter was still pending when Matthias, who had long been crippled by gout, expired very suddenly on Palm Sunday, the 4th of April 1490.
Fraknoi Life of Janos Vitez (Hung.
Budapest 1879); Karl Schober, Die Eroberung Niederosterreichs durch Matthias Corvinus (Vienna, 1879); Janos Huszar, Matthias's Black Army (Hung.
He was finally routed at Temesvar by the combined forces of Janos Zapolya and Istvan Bathory, was captured, and condemned to sit on a red-hot iron throne, with a red-hot iron crown on his head and a red-hot sceptre in his hand.
The losses inflicted on the Turks by Hunyadi Janos, and the attempt to organize a defensive league among the neighbouring Christian lands, temporarily averted the ruin of all the neighbouring lands were governed by Moslems or Roman Catholics; and at home the peasants were permitted to retain their creed and communal organization.
In Transylvania, however, the common peril evoked by the Turkish incursion and a simultaneous rising of the Vlach peasantry had knit together the jarring interests of Magyars, Saxons and Szeklers, a union which, under the national hero, the voivode Janos Hunyadi, was destined for a while to turn the tide of war.
The conquest of Bosnia, rendered necessary by the war with Venice, was next completed, in spite of the reverses inflicted on the Turks by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus, the son of Janos Hunyadi.
(See Hunyadi, Janos; and WLADISLAUS III.) The next fourteen years form one of the most interesting and pregnant periods of Hungarian history.
Some of the prelates - notably Janos Csezmeczey, better known as Janus Pannonius (4331 47 2) - had a European reputation for learning.
The primate Cardinal, Janos Vitez (1408-1472), at the beginning, and the primate, Cardinal Tamas Bakocz, at the end of the reign were men of eminent ability and the highest culture.
He had designated as his successor his natural son, g the highly gifted Janos (John) Corvinus, a youth of seventeen.
How Janos was cajoled out of an almost impregnable position, and gradually reduced to insignificance, is told elsewhere (see Corvinus, Janos).
The government remained in the hands of Cardinal Bakocz till his death in 1521, when the supreme authority at court was disputed between the lame palatine Istvan Bathory, and his rival, the eminent jurist and orator Istvan Verbdczy (q.v.), - both of them incompetent, unprincipled place-hunters, - while, in the background lurked Janos Zapolya (see John (Zapolya), King Of Hungary), voivode of Tran sylvania, patiently waiting till the death of the feeble and childless king (who, in 1522, married Maria of Austria) should open for him a way to the throne.
Is also memorable for two Turkish wars, the first of which, beginning in 1716, and made glorious by the victories of Prince Eugene and Janos Pallfy, was terminated by 2 Charles VI.
1900); Janos Majlath, Geschichte der Magyaren (5 vols., 3rd ed., Regensburg, 1852-1853)-somewhat out of date (it first appeared in 1828), but useful for those who like a little more detail; Count Julius Andrassy, The Development of Hungarian Constitutional Liberty, translated by C. Arthur and Ilona Ginever (London, 1908), containing an interesting comparison with English constitutional development; C. M.
Other precursors of the modern school were the poet and philologist Francis Verseghy, whose works extend to nearly forty volumes; the gifted didactic prose writer, Joseph 'Carman; the metrical rhymster, Gideon Raday; the lyric poets, Ssentjebi Szabo, Janos Bacsanyi, and the short-lived Gabriel Dayka, whose posthumous " Verses " were published in 1813 by Kazinczy.
Temesvar is the seat of a Roman Catholic and a Greek Orthodox bishop. Amongst its principal buildings are the Roman Catholic cathedral, built (1735-57) by Maria Theresa; the Greek Orthodox cathedral; a castle built by Hunyady Janos in 1442, now used as an arsenal; the town and county hall, the museum and large barracks.
Janos Arany >>
JANOS ARANY (1817-1882), the greatest poet of Hungary after Petofi, was born at Nagy-Szalonta on the 2nd of March 1817, the son of Gyorgy Arany and Sara Megyeri; his people were small Calvinist yeomen of noble origin, whose property consisted of a rush-thatched cottage and a tiny plot of land.
Janos Damjanich >>
Murad maintained a long struggle against the Bosnians and Hungarians, in the course of which Turkey sustained many severe reverses through the valour of Janos Hunyadi.
The principal are the Hunyadi-Janos spring, of which about 1,000,000 bottles are exported annually, the Arpad spring, and the Apenta spring.
Janos Bacsanyi >>
His earliest governesses were the wives of a tailor and a vintner from the Dutch settlement; a sailor called Norman taught him the rudiments of navigation; and, when he grew older, he was placed under the care of a Hungarian refugee, Janos Zeikin, who seems to have been a conscientious teacher.
(Hung.; Pest, 1885); Antal Por, Life of St Stephen (Hung.; Pest, 1871); Janos Karacsonyi, Documents issued by Stephen I.
Amongst these are the Hungarian waters, Aesculap, Apenta, Franz Josef and Hunyadi Janos; and the Rubinat and Condal waters of Spain.
His "aulic tendencies" made him so unpopular that his offer of mediation between the Rak6czy insurgents and the government was rejected by the Hungarian diet, and the negotiations, which led to the peace of Szatmar (see Hungary: History), were entrusted to Janos Pallfy.
See also Count Janos Esterhazy, Description of the Esterhazy Family (Hung., Budapest, 1901).
Janos Corvinus >>