Husain albalkhi, better known as Maulana Jalal-uddin Rumi (or simply Jalal-uddin, or Jelal-eddin), the greatest Sufic poet of Persia, was born on the 30th of September 1207 (604 A.H.
Tukush (1199-1220), whose only daughter, Malika-i-Jahan, had been married to Jalal-uddin's grandfather.
Here young Jalal-uddin grew up, and in 1226 married Jauhar Khatun, the daughter of Laid Sharaf-uddin of Samarkand.
After Baha-uddin's death in 1231, Jalal-uddin went to Aleppo and Damascus for a short time to study, but, dissatisfied with the exact sciences, he returned to Iconium, where he became by and by professor of four separate colleges, and devoted himself to the study of mystic theosophy.
Shams-uddin's aggressive character roused the people of Iconium against him, and during a riot in which Jalal-uddin's eldest son, 'Ala-uddin, was killed, he was arrested and probably executed; at least he was no more seen.
In remembrance of these victims of popular wrath Jalal-uddin founded the order of the Maulawi (in Turkish Mevlevi) dervishes, famous for their piety as well as for their peculiar garb of mourning, their music and their mystic dance (sama), which is the outward representation of the circling movement of the spheres, and the inward symbol of the circling movement of the soul caused by the vibrations of a Sufi's fervent love to God.
The idea of this immense collection of ethical and moral precepts was first suggested to the poet by his favourite disciple Hasan, better known as Husam-uddin, who in 1258 became Jalal-uddin's chief assistant.
Jalal-uddin dictated to him, with a short interruption, the whole work during the remaining years of his life.
Soon after its completion Jalal-uddin died, on the 17th of December 1273 (672 A.H.
His first successor in the rectorship of the Maulawi fraternity was Husam-uddin himself, after whose death in 1284 Jalal-uddin's younger and only surviving son, Shaikh Bahaudd-In Ahmed, commonly called Sultan Walad, and favourably known as author of the mystical mathnawi Rababnama, or the Book of the Guitar (died 1312), was duly installed as grand-master of the order.
Jalal-uddin's life is fully described in Shams-uddin Ahmed Aflaki's Manakib-ul `arifin (written between A.D.
For the other numerous commentaries and for further biographical and literary particulars of Jalal-uddin, see Rieu's Cat.
Selections from Jalal-uddin's diwan (of ten styled Diwan-i-Shams-i-Tabriz) are translated in German verse by V.
But his greatest military fame was won by a war which, however glorious, was to prove fatal to the Seljuk empire in the future: in conjunction with his ally, the Ayyubite prince Ashraf, he defeated the Khwarizm shah Jalal ud-din near Erzingan (1230).
He also gained the city of Khelat with dependencies that in former times had belonged to the Shah-i-Armen, but shortly before had been taken by Jalal ud-din; this aggression was the cause of the war just mentioned.
874; Jalal al-din al-Suyuti, d.
702, and Jalal al-din Suyu~i.
The last dynasty ended with Sultan Jalal-ud-din, during whose reign (1221-1231) a division of the Mogul army of Jenghiz Khan first invaded Khwarizm, while the khan himself was besieging Bamian; Jalal-ud-din, deserted by most of his troops, retired to Ghazni, where he was pursued by Jenghiz Khan, and again retreating towards Hindustan was overtaken and driven across the Indus.
In Bengal he visited the famous Moslem saint Shaykh Jalaluddin, whose shrine (Shah Jalal at Silhet) is still maintained.
The slave dynasty retained the throne till 1290, when it was subverted by Jalal-ud-din Khilji.