These temples belong to the Jains, and contain two massive statues of their deities, the one black, the other white.
The Jains all over India burn sticks of incense before their Jina.
But the Buddha, while rejecting the sacrifices and the ritualistic magic of the brahmin schools, the animistic superstitions of the people, the asceticism and soultheory of the Jains, and the pantheistic speculations of the poets of the pre-Buddhistic Upanishads, still retained the belief in transmigration.
In this way both Buddhism (q.v.) and Jains have almost been swallowed up by Hinduism; Sikhism (q.v.) is only preserved by the military requirements of the British, and even the antagonism between Hindu and Mahommedan is much less acute than it used to be.
More than two-fifths of the Jains in India are found in Bombay and its native states, including Baroda.
The total number of persons belonging to all the other religions - Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Parsees, Christians, Jews, Aryas and Brahmoswas only 268,930, or less than o.
This is the chief place of pilgrimage for the Jains, Shrawaks and Banians.
JAINS, the most numerous and influential sect of heretics, or nonconformists to the Brahmanical system of Hinduism, in India.
The Jains are the last direct representatives on the continent of India of those schools of thought which grew out of the active philosophical speculation and earnest spirit of religious inquiry that prevailed in the valley of the Ganges during the 5th and 6th centuries before the Christian era.
But when Buddhism, whose widely open doors had absorbed the mass of the community, became thereby corrupted from its pristine purity and gradually died away, the smaller school of the Jains, less diametrically opposed to the victorious orthodox creed of the Brahmans, survived, and in some degree took its place.
But the Jains, like the Buddhists, believe that the same system had previously been proclaimed through countless ages by each one of a succession of earlier teachers.
The Jains count twentyfour such prophets, whom they call Jinas, or Tirthankaras, that is, conquerors or leaders of schools of thought.
The Jains are divided into two great parties - the Digambaras, or Sky-clad Ones, and the Svetambaras, or the White-robed Ones.
Devaddhi Ganin, who occupies among the Jains a position very similar to that occupied among the Buddhists by Buddhaghosa, collected the then existing traditions and teachings of the sect into these forty-five Agamas.
1000 and Imo that the Jains adopted Sanskrit as their literary language.
The oldest books now in the possession of the modern Jains purport to go back, not to the foundation of the existing order in the 6th century B.C., but only to the time of Bhadrabahu, three centuries later.
The Jains themselves have now printed in Bombay a complete edition of their sacred books.
These confirm the older records in many details, and show that the Jains, in the centuries before the Christian era, were a wealthy and important body in widely separated parts of India.
The statues of the Jinas in the Jain temples, some of which are of enormous size, are still always quite naked; but the Jains themselves have abandoned the practice, the Digambaras being sky-clad at meal-time only, and the Svetambaras being always completely clothed.
In philosophy the Jains are the most thorough-going supporters of the old animistic position.
The word the Jains use for soul is jiva, which means life; and there is much analogy between many of the expressions they use and the view that the ultimate cells and atoms are all, in a more or less modified sense, alive.
On the other hand, the Jains are as determined in their views of asceticism (tapas) as they were compromising in their views of philosophy.
- Bhadrabahu's Kalpa Siitra, the recognized and popular manual of the Svetambara Jains, edited with English introduction by Professor Jacobi (Leipzig, 1879); Hemacandra's "Yoga S'astram," edited by Windisch, in the Zeitschrift der deutschen morg.