When, in the 5th century A.D., owing to theological differences the Syriac-using Christians became divided into Nestorians or East Syrians and Jacobites (Monophysites) or West Syrians, certain differences of pronunciation, chiefly in the vowels, began to develop themselves.
The old Semitic a with them remained a, but with the Jacobites passed into o.
The Maronites, and the uniate Jacobites, Chaldaeans and Copts have adopted the Roman mitre.
Modern missions have made no great conquests there, and in earlier times the Nestorians and Jacobites who penetrated to central Asia, China and India, received respectful hearing, but never had anything like the success which attended Buddhism and Islam.
But, in a false alarm, the Jacobites suddenly retreated, and a few years later the town was reimbursed by the State for the Pretender's extortions.
Matters were not bettered by the Act of Union signed in a cellar in High Street in 1707, amidst the execrations of the people, and it was not till the hopes of the Jacobites were blasted at Culloden (1746) that the townsfolk began to accept the inevitable.
According, then, to the Roman view, 1 The Syrian Jacobites and the Maronites also ordain " singers," Denzinger, Rit.
The Jacobites unsuccessfully besieged it in 1715 and 1746.
His fellow-worker Narsai, whom the Jacobites called " the leper," but the Nestorians " the harp of the Holy Spirit," apparently accompanied Barsauma from Edessa to Nisibis, where according to Barhebraeus he lived for 50 years.
JACOBITES (from Lat.
The history of the Jacobites, culminating in the risings of 1715 and 1745, is part of the general history of England, and especially of Scotland, in which country they were comparatively more numerous and more active, while there was also a large number of Jacobites in Ireland.
Finger-bowls were not placed upon the royal dinner-table, because in former times those who secretly sympathized with the Jacobites were in the habit of drinking to the king over the water.
Here the Jacobites made an ineffectual rally under Lord George Murray after the battle of Culloden.
It is possible to suppose a connexion between his zeal for making peace with France and a desire to forward the Pretender's interests or win support from the Jacobites.'
The Jacobite Sir William Windham had been made chancellor of the exchequer, important military posts were placed in the hands of the faction, and a new ministry of Jacobites was projected.
The Nestorians and Jacobites at the present day suppose it to begin with the following month, or October.
It was captured by the Jacobites in 1745, but reoccupied after the battle of Culloden, when it received its present name in honour of William Augustus, duke of Cumberland, the victorious general.
While Jacob of Edessa is said to have ordained some 100,000 priests and deacons for his fellow-believers, in the 16th century the Jacobites of Syria were estimated at only 50,000 families.
Eugenius signed an agreement with the Armenians on the 22nd of November 1439, and with a part of the Jacobites in 1443; and in 1445 he received the Nestorians and Maronites.
On the 26th of April 1441 the pope announced that the synod would be transferred to the Lateran; but before leaving Florence a union was negotiated with the Oriental Christians known as Jacobites, through a monk named Andreas, who, at least as regards Abyssinia, acted in excess of his powers.
In 1743 George took up arms on behalf of the empress Maria Theresa; but in August 1745 the danger in England from the Jacobites led him to sign the convention of Hanover with Frederick the Great, although the struggle with France raged around his electorate until the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.
By the Jacobites and the Old Pretender by the Hanoverians, had two sons - Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, who died without legitimate issue in 1780, and Henry Stuart, titular duke of York, commonly called Cardinal York, on whose death in 1807 the male line of James II.
Chalcedon was repudiated afresh, union with the Jacobites instituted, use of water and leaven in the Eucharist condemned, the five days' preliminary fast before Lent restored, Saturday as well as Sunday made a day of feasting and synaxis, any but the orthodox excluded from the Maundy Thursday Communion, the first communion of the new catechumens; union of the Baptismal and Christmas feasts was restored, and the faithful forbidden to fast on Fridays from Easter until Pentecost.
The population numbers 38,000, nearly half being Christian, comprising Turks, Kurds, Arabs, Turkomans, Armenians, Chaldeans, Jacobites and a few Greeks.
In both rebellions the magistrates took the side of the Crown and were supported by the townsfolk generally, the Jacobites drawing their strength mainly from the county noblemen and gentry with their retainers.
Of England and elder son of James, the "Old Pretender," by whom (as James III.) he was created at his birth prince of Wales, the title he bore among the English Jacobites during his father's lifetime.
He had at Rome already made the acquaintance of Lord Elcho and of John Murray of Broughton; at Paris he had seen many supporters of the Stuart cause; he was aware that in every European court the Jacobites were represented in earnest intrigue; and he had now taken a considerable share in correspondence and other actual work connected with the promotion of his own and his father's interests.
His attempts to reform certain abuses of the Church, especially that of clerical nonresidence, awakened much ill-will, and of this the Jacobites took advantage, pursuing him to the end of his life with insult and reproach.
He was always suspected of being a Roman Catholic, and invariably treated Jacobites and Papists better than Dissenters in the Athenae, but he died in communion with the Church of England.
A Convention of Estates, without a royal commissioner, met at Edinburgh on the 14th of March 1689, and it is curious that Williamites and Jacobites were not unequally represented.
Henceforth, for lack of a commander of Dundee's genius, there was no real danger from the clans, and absolutely no chance of a rising of the lowland Jacobites in their support.
Vice-Consul Fitzmaurice said that before December 1895 it was close on 65,000, of whom about 20,000 were Armenian, 3000 or 4000 Jacobites, Syrian-Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Maronites and Jews, and the remaining 40,000 Turkish, Kurdian and Arab Mahommedans.
The value of exports and imports in certain specified years is shown in the following table: - Most of the Christians belong to the Orthodox and Roman Catholic (United) Greek Churches; and there are also communities of Melchites, Jacobites, Maronites, Nestorians, Armenians and Protestants.
The massacre of Syrians, Jacobites and Chaldees at Urfa and elsewhere formed no part of the original plan.
Was received after his defeat at Solway Moss in 1542, and here a few Jacobites used to meet in 1715.
In 1715 the 3rd duke of Argyll held it to prevent the passage of the Forth by the Jacobites, and in 1746 it was ineffectually besieged by Prince Charles Edward.
The advocates of the one nature theory were called Monophysites (q.v.), and they gave rise to numerous sects, and to at least three separate national churches - the Jacobites of Syria, the Copts of Egypt and the Abyssinian Church, which are treated under separate headings.
From this time forward the church, while jealously asserting her spiritual independence, was on the side of the crown against the Jacobites, and became more and more an orderly and useful ally of the state.
The name of "Jacobites" is first found in a synodal decree of Nicaea A.D.
Her moderation towards the Jacobites in Scotland, after the Pretender's expedition in 1708, was much praised by Saint Simon.
They objected strongly to the proposal for the union of England and Scotland, and were suspected of abetting a rising which took place in the west of Scotland in 1706; but there appears to be no foundation for the statement that they intrigued with the Jacobites, and they gave no trouble to the government either in 1715 or in 1745.
His sympathies were with the Jacobites, whom he kept informed of all the negotiations for the union; in 1713 he took part in an abortive movement aiming at the repeal of the union.