2), two jacks are laid at the far end of the green 12 ft.
This board was equipped with spring-jacks and annunciators (calling-drops) for the subscribers' lines, and with flexible cords terminating in plugs for connecting purposes.
All the subscribers' lines are connected in order to jacks on the first two or three or four operators' positions, and these connexions are repeated or " multipled " upon each succeeding similar group of positions.
Each subscriber's circuit is further connected to another spring-jack directly associated with the calling-drop. These springjacks, known as answering jacks, are distributed along the switchboard, a certain number being terminated upon each position and placed in the care of the operator assigned to that position.
In the arrangement first introduced the line wire is connected in series through the various spring-jacks, the circuit finally passing through the answering jack to the calling-drop. This arrangement is liable to give trouble, as disconnexions may arise in the spring-jacks in consequence of the failures of the springs to make contact.
In this arrangement, instead of the circuit being made through the jacks in series, each jack is connected to an independent branch from the main circuit.
This requirement is usually met by connecting a third or " test " wire to each of the jacks associated with a subscriber's line, and by making the circuit arrangements such that this wire is either disconnected or at earth potential when the line is not in use, and at some potential above or below that of the earth, when the circuit is engaged.
They were employed as animated roasting jacks, turning round and round the wire cage in which they were confined, but with the employment of mechanical jacks their use ceased and the race appears to be extinct.
Farther west are found the "Jack-Jacks" and the "Kwa-Kwas," sobriquets given respectively to the Aradian and Avikom by the early European traders.
He entered at once into commercial life in Glasgow, and became a member of a kinsman's firm, William Kidston & Sons, iron merchants, subsequently joining William Jacks & Co., iron merchants.