Conway, Italic Dialects, 145, and Verner's law in Italy, p. 78, where the change of s to r is explained as probably due to the Latin conquest).
See Conway's Italic Dialects (Carob.
In the first period (Italic) cremation burials closely approximating to the Villanova type are found; in the second 1 (Venetian) the tombs are constructed of blocks of stone, and situlae (bronze buckets), sometimes decorated with elaborate designs, are frequently used to contain the cinerary urns; in the third (Gallic), which begins during the 4th centilry B.C., though cremation continues, the tombs are much poorer, the ossuaries being of badly baked rough clay, and show traces of Gallic influence, and characteristics of the La-Tene civilization.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 267 sqq.
The first real advance towards their interpretation was made by Otfried Muller (Die Etrusker, 1828), who pointed out that though their alphabet was akin to the Etruscan their language was Italic. Lepsius, in his essay De tabulis Eugubinis (1833), finally determined the value of the Umbrian signs and the received order of the Tables, pointing out that those in Latin alphabet were the latest.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, 352) shows a final -s and a medial -d-, both apparently preserved from the changes which befell these sounds, as we shall see, in the dialect of Iguvium.
Have been collected (I) the points which separate all the Italic languages from their nearest congeners, and (2) those which separate Osco-Umbrian from Latin.
Of these only the outstanding features can be mentioned here; for a fuller discussion the reader must be referred to The Italic Dialects, pp. 400 sqq.
The name seems to be a Graecized form of an Italic Vitelia, from the stem vitlo-, calf (Lat.
And Oscan, (3) Messapian, (4) North Oscan, (5) Volscian, (6) East Italic or Sabellic, (7) Latinian, (8) Sabine, (9) Iguvine or Umbrian, (10) Gallic, (11) Ligurian and (12) Venetic.
(I) It is probable, though not very clearly demonstrated, that Venetic, East Italic and Messapian are connected together and with the ancient dialects spoken in Illyria, so that these might be provisionally entitled the Adriatic group, to which the language spoken.
(5) Turning now to the languages which constitute the Italic groupinthenarrowersense, (a) Oscan; (b) the dialect of Velitrae, commonly called Volscian; (c) Latinian (i.e.
The Goths, except in the valley of the P0, resembled an army of occupation rather than a people numerous enough to blend with the Italic stock.
This donation of Pippin in 756 confirmed the papal see in the protectorate of the Italic party, and conferred upon it sovereign rights.
The pope was confirmed in his rectorship of the cities ceded by Aistolf, with the further understanding, tacit rather than expressed, that, even as he had wrung these provinces for the Italic people from both Greeks and Lombards, so in the future he might claim the protectorate of such portions of Italy, external to the kingdom, as he should be able to acquired This, at any rate, seems to be the meaning of that obscure re-settlement of the peninsula which Charles effected.
See also Zinis Storia d Italic (4 vols., Milan, 1875); Gualterios Gil ultimi rivolgimenti italiani (4 vols., Florence, 1850) is important for the period from 1831 to 1847, and so also is L.
Next we may mention Muratoris Annati d italic, together with Guicciardinis Storia d Italia and its modern continuation by Carlo Botta.
Meanwhile Mithradates and the East were forgotten in the crisis of the Social or Italic War, which broke out in 91 and threatened Rome's very existence.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 290 seq.
Conway, The Italic Dialects (1897), for Bruttian inscriptions and local and personal names; P. Orsi in Atti del congresso storico (Rome, 1904), v.
The letter L indicates the position of the labellum; the large figures indicate the developed stamens; the italic figures show the position of the suppressed stamens.
Excavations of recent years have, however, led to the discovery of some 600 ancient Italic (Ligurian?) huts, and of cemeteries of the same and the succeeding (Umbrian) periods (800-600?
Several of its linguistic features, both in vocabulary and in syntax, are of considerable interest to the student of Latin or Italic grammar (e.g.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, p. 253 seq.
A group of Italic cremation tombs a pozzo of the Villanova period were found under the pavement of the medieval Vicolo del Campidoglio.
Close to the mouth of the river was the sacred grove of the Italic goddess Marica.
As the district was full of traders, Subura may very well be an imported word, but the form with C must either go back to a period before the disappearance of g before v or must come from some other Italic dialect.
(ib., 1774); Plutarchus (II vols., ib., 1 774-79); Dionys Italic. (6 vols..
Brixianus (f) of the 6th century, and this used to be called the Italic version, owing (as F.
It is usually the case that a unit lasts later in trade than in coinage; and the prominence of this standard in Italy may show how it is that this mina (18 unciae = 7400) was known as the "Italic" in the days of Galen and Dioscorides (2).
In Spain it was 236 to 216 in different series (17), and it is a question whether the Massiliote drachmae of 58-55 are not Phoenician rather than Phocaic. In Italy this mina became naturalized, and formed the "Italic mina" of Hero, Priscian, &c.; also its double, the mina of 26 unciae or 10,800, = 50 shekels of 216; the average of 42 weights gives 5390 (=215.6), and it was divided both into 100 drachmae, and also in the Italic mode of 12 unciae and 288 scripulae (44).
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 258 ff., on which this article is based.
A few Oscan inscriptions survive, mostly in Greek characters, from the 4th or 3rd century B.C., and some coins with Oscan legends of the 3rd century (see Conway, Italic Dialects, p. 11 sqq.; Mommsen, C.I.L.
SABINI, an ancient tribe of Italy, which was more closely in touch with the Romans from the earliest recorded period than any other Italic people.
Conway in The Italic Dialects (Cambridge, 1897).
Conway, the Italic Dialects (Cambridge, 1897), p. 35 1.
Conway, Italic Dialects, i.
See Conway, Italic Dialects, p. 51; J.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 54 sqq.; Nissen, Pompeianische Studien; J.
Paelignian and this group of inscriptions generally form a most important link in the chain of the Italic dialects, as without them the transition from Oscan to Umbrian would be completely lost.
Conway, The Italic Dialects, pp. 235 sqq., and the earlier authorities there cited.
With the handle lengthened (86) and turned forward, this became the plough (87 is the hieroglyph, 88 the drawing, of a plough); this was always sloping, and never the upright post of the Italic type.
Shovel-boards, to hold in right (93) or left hand for scraping up the grain in winnowing, are usual in the XVIIIth Dynasty, and are figured in use in the Old Kingdom Pruning knives with curved blades (94) are Italic, and were made of iron by the Romans.
It should be added that the proper names in the inscriptions show the regular Italic system of gentile nomen preceded by a personal praenomen; and that some inscriptions show the interesting feature which appears in the Tables of Heraclea of a crest or coat of arms, such as a triangle or an anchor, peculiar to particular families.
The sign x was kept in the western group for the guttural spirant in E, which was written X*; but, as this spirant occurred nowhere else, the combination was often abbreviated, and X was used for X precisely as in the Italic alphabets we shall find that F =f develops out of a combination FH.
Besides the Italic alphabets already mentioned, which are all derived from the alphabet of the Chalcidian Greek colonists in Italy, there were at least four other alphabets in use in different parts of Italy: (i) the Messapian of the south-east part of the peninsula, in which the inscriptions of the Illyrian dialect in use there were written, an alphabet which, according to Pauli (Alt-italische Forschungen, iii.
The runes are found in all Teutonic countries, and the Romans were in close contact with the Germans on the Rhine before the beginning I For further details of these alphabets, see Conway, The Italic Dialects, ii.
Schmidt (Italic) in Pauly's Realencyclopadie edited by Wissowa (1894).
The Indo-European or Indo-Germanic languages are divided by Brugmann into (1) Aryan, with sub-branches (a) Indian, (b) Iranian; (2) Armenian; (3) Greek; (4) Albanian; (~) Italic; (6) Celtic; (7) Germanic, with sub-branches (a) Gothic, (b) Scandinavian, (c) West Germanic; and (8) Balto-Slavonic. (See INDO-EUROPEAN.) The Aryan family (called by Professor Sievers the Asiatic base-language) is subdivided into (1) Iranian (Eranian, or Erano-Aryan) languages, (2) Pisacha, or non-Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages, (3) Indo-Aryan, or Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages (for the last two see INDO-ARYAN) Iranian being also grouped into Persian and non-Persian.
As the result, we get from Livy very defective accounts even of the Italic peoples most closely connected with Rome.