The Italians were ill-treated by the Greeks and were not well looked on by the Philhellene committees, who thought that their presence would offend the powers.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States 61,508 were natives of Virginia, 40,301 of Ohio, 28,927 of Pennsylvania and 10,867 of Kentucky; and of the foreign-born there were 6J37 Germans, 334 2 Irish, 2921 Italians and 2622 English.
The people are generally courteous and kindly, the island being still comparatively rarely visited by foreigners, while Italians seem to regard it as almost a place of exile.
A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
Of the immigrant arrivals for the forty-seven years given, 1,331,536 were Italians, 4 1 4,973 Spaniards, 170,293 French, 37,953 Austrians, 35,435 British, 30,699 Germans, 25,775 Swiss, 19,521 Belgians, and the others of diverse nationalities, so that Argentina is in no danger of losing her Latin character through immigration.
Of the arrivals 67,598 were Italians and 39,851 Spaniards.
But Philip's preparations were now complete, and Alva set out from Italy at the head of a force of some io,000 veteran troops, Spaniards and Italians, afterwards increased by a body of Germans, with which, after marching through Burgundy, Lorraine and Luxemburg, he reached the Netherlands (August 8), and made his entry into Brussels a fortnight later.
French residents numbered 50,996, naturalized Frenchmen Spaniards 12,354, Italians 7368, Maltese 865, and other Europeans (chiefly British and Germans) 1652, besides 12,490 Jews.
Some trees of the sessile-fruited oak bear sweet acorns in Britain, and several varieties were valued by the ancient Italians for their edible fruit.
Italians form about half of the total emigrants to America.
The difficulty of Italian history lies in the fact, that until modern times the Italians have had no political unity, no independence, no organized existence as a nation.
It must be observed that the name Italians was at one time confined to the Oenotrians; indeed, according to Antiochus of Syracuse (apud Dion.
Those who believe that the Italians would have gained strength by unification in a single monarchy must regret that this Gothic kingdom lacked the elements of stability.
The Italians acknowledged eight kings of the house of Charles the Great, ending in Charles the Fat, who was deposed in 888.
Fr8nkislj After them followed ten sovereigns, some of whom have been misnamed Italians by writers too eager to catch at any resemblance of national glory for a ~ people passive in the hands of foreign masters.
It is one of the strongest instances furnished by history of the fascination exercised by an idea that the Italians themselves should have grown to glory in this dependence of their nation upon Caesars who had nothing but a name in common with the Roman Imperator of the past.
But now even that shadow of union disappeared, and the Italians were abandoned to the slowly working influences which tended to divide them into separate states.
Within the cities and upon the open lands the Italians, in this and the next century, doubled, trebled and quadrupled their numbers.
But it neither raised the prestige of the papacy, nor could it satisfy the Italians, who rightly regarded the Roman see as theirs.
In the first place, from this time forward, owing to the election of popes by the Roman curia, the Holy See remained in the hands ~ of Italians; and this, though it was by no means an cities.
But by far tht greatest profit the Italians reaped was the emancipation of theh burghs.
Their mutual jealousies, combined with the prestige of the empire, and possibly with the selfishness of the pope, who had secured his own position, and was not likely to foster a national spirit that would have threatened the ecclesiastical supremacy, deprived the Italians of the only great opportunity they ever had of forming themselves into a powerful nation.
A second great event was the fourth crusade, undertaken in 1198, which established the naval and commercial supremacy of the Italians in the Mediterranean.
It was impossible for any section of the Italians to mistake the gravity of his access to power.
The Italians learn through their discords at this epoch that they form one community.
Thus the Italians, during the heat of the civil wars, were ostensibly divided between partisans of the ~ ~ empire and partisans of the church.
Left to themselves by absentee emperors and exiled popes, the Italians pursued their own course of development unchecked.
The Italians were tired of f,ghting, and the leaders of both factions looked exclusively to their own interests.
In this way the Italians lost their military vigour, and wars were waged by despots from their cabinets, who pulled the strings of puppet captains in their pay.
Re-established the papacy upon a solid basis at Rome, the Italians approximated D~cr1mimore nearly to self-government than at any other nation of epoch of their history.
Then, too late, patriots like Machiavelli perceived the suicidal self-indulgence of the past, which, by substituting mercenary troops for national militias, left the Italians at the absolute discretion.
Whatever parts the Italians themselves played in the succeeding quarter of a century, the game was in the hands of French, Spanish and German invaders.
From 1530 until 1796, that is, for a period of nearly three centuries, the Italians had no history of their own.
Henceforth it was impossible to publish or to utter a word which might offend the despots of church or state; and the Italians had to amuse their leisure with the polite triflings of academics.
Worse complications ensued for the Italians when the emperor Charles VI., father of Maria Theresa, died in i74o.
It is said that out of 27,000 Italians who entered Russia with Eugene, only 333 saw their country again.
Very many of them, distrusting both of these kings, sought to act independently in favor of an Italian republic. Lord William Bentinck with an AngloSicilian force landed at Leghorn on the 8th of March 1814, and issued a proclamation to the Italians bidding them rise against Napoleon in the interests of their own freedom.
This result, accruing from British intervention, was in some respects similar to that exerted by Napoleon on the Italians of the mainland.
The brutalities of Austrias white coats in the north, the unintelligent repression then characteristic of the house of Savoy, the petty spite of the duke of Modena, the medieval obscurantism of pope and cardinals in the middle of the peninsula and the clownish excesses of Ferdinand in the south, could not blot out from the minds of the Italians the recollection of the benefits derived from the just laws, vigorous administration and enlightened aims of the great emperor.
In having inspired a large number of Italians with that idea at a time when provincial jealousies and the difficulty of communications maintained separatist feelings.
The rebels were captured and shot, but the significance of the attempt lies in the fact that it was the first occasion on which north Italians (the Bandieras were Venetians and officers in the Austrian navy) had tried to raise the standard of revolt in the south.
On the 23rd of June La Marmora crossed Minclo, and on the 24th a battle was fought at Custozza, ler circumstances highly disadvantageous to the Italians, ich after a stubborn contest ended in a crushing Austrian tory.
Custozza might have been afterwards retrieved,, for Italians had plenty of fresh troops besides Cialdinis army; nothing was done, as both the king and La Marraora believed situation to be much worse than it actually wa,s.
To participate; and Rouher, the French premier, declared ir the Chamber (5th of December 1867) that France could never permit the Italians to occupy Rome.
The resignation of the Gladstone-Granville cabinet further precluded the projected Italian occupation of Suakin, and the Italians, wisely refraining from an independent attempt to succour Kassala, then besieged by the Mahdists, bent their efforts to the increase of their zone of occupation around Massawa.
Portal returned to Massawa on the 25th of December 1887, and warned the Italians that John was preparing to attack them in the following spring with an army of 100,000 men.
More important than all was the interest of the Roman curia, composed almost exclusively of Italians, to retain in its own hands the choice of the pontiff and to maintain the predominance 01 the Italian element and the Italian spirit in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.
The protocol concluded with Great Britain on the 15th of April 1891, already referred to, contained a clause to the effect that, were Kassala occupied by the Italians, the place should be transferred to the Egyptian government as soon as the latter should be In a position.
Hurriedly retreating to Senaf, hard pressed by the Italians, who shelled Senaf on the evening of the 15th of January, Mangashh was obliged to abandon his camp and provisions to Baratieri, who also secured a quantity of correspondence establishing the complicity of Menelek and Mangash in the revolt of Bath-Agos.
Mangash Ic] back before the Italians, who obtained several minor successes but on the 6th of December Tosellis column, 2000 strong, whic]
The Italians, including camp-followers, numbered less than 25,000 men, a force too small for effective action, but too large to be easily provisioned at 200 m.
Pressed by overwhelming forces, the Italians, after a violent combat, began to give way.
Baratieri vainly attempted to push forward the reserve, but the Italians were already overwhelmed, and the battleor rather, series of distinct engagementsended in a general rout.
Concluding, at Adis Ababa, a provisional treaty annulling the treaty of Uccialli; recognizing the absolute independence of Ethiopia; postponing for one year the definitive delimitation of the Italo-Abyssinian boundary, but allowing the Italians meanwhile to hold the strong MarebBelesa-Muna line; and arranging for the release of the Italian prisoners after ratification of the treaty in exchange for an indemnity of which the amount was to be fixed by the Italian government.
The crowd consisted of a few Russians and many of Napoleon's soldiers who were not on duty--Germans, Italians, and Frenchmen, in a variety of uniforms.