After joining the "Giovine Italia" he entered the Sardinian navy, and, with a number of companions on board the frigate "Euridice," plotted to seize the vessel and occupy the arsenal of Genoa at the moment when Mazzini's Savoy expedition should enter Piedmont.
He contributed to the Antologia, a celebrated Florentine review, and in 1847 founded a newspaper called L' Italia, the programme of which, was "Reform and Nationality."
His most important literary work is his Memorie sull' Italia e specialmente sull y Toscana dal 1814 al 1850, in 2 vols.
(Turin, 18 53); he also wrote Il Partito nazionale italiano (Turin, 1856), L'Impero, it papato, e la democrazia in Italia (Florence, 1859): and Dell' ordinamento nazionale in Italia (Florence, 1862).
ITALY (Italia), the name1 applied both in ancient and in modern times to the great peninsula that projects from the mass of central Europe far to the south into the Mediterranean Sea, where the island of Sicily may be considered as a continuation of he continental promontory.
B~t in the time of that historian, as well as of Thucydides, the names of Oenotria and Italia, which appear to have been at that period regarded as synonymous, had been extended to include the shore of the Tarentine Gulf as far as Metapontum and from thence across to the gulfs of Laus and Posidonia on the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Italia in R.
Strafforello, Geografia deli Italia (Turin, 1890-1892); H.
Though eventually this activity of the Giovane Italia supplanted that of the older societies, in practice it met with no better success; the two attempts to invade Savoy in the hope of seducing the army from its allegiance failed miserably, and only resulted in a series of barbarous sentences of death and imprisonment which made most Liberals despair of Charles Albert, while they called down much criticism on Mazzini as the organizer of raids in which he himself took no part.
Next we may mention Muratoris Annati d italic, together with Guicciardinis Storia d Italia and its modern continuation by Carlo Botta.
De Sismondis Ripubligues ilaliennes (Brussels, I838) and Carlo Trovas Stone d Italia net medio evo are among the most valuable general works, while the large Storia Politica d Italia by various authors, ptiblished at Milan, is also importantF.
Cosci, L Italia durante le preponderanze straniere, 1530-1789 (1875): A.
Franchetti, Stone d Italia dat 1789 at 1799 (Milan, 1878); P. Gaffarel, Bonaparte ci les rpubliques italiennes (1796-1799) (Paris, 1895); R.
Ramondini, L Italia durante la dominazione francese (Naples, 1882); E.
Linden, De bello civili Sullano (1896); P. Cantalupi, La Guerra civile Sullana in Italia (1892); C. W.
70 it was "Italia verius quam provincia" (Pliny).
Mommsen (Unteritalische Dialekten, p. 345) pointed out that in the social war all the coins of Pompaedius Silo have the Latin legend "Italia," while the other leaders in all but one case used Oscan.
To part or the whole of this peninsula the name Italia was first applied.
Herrera's other works are the following: Historia de lo sucedido en Escocia é Inglaterra en quarenta y quatro anos que vivio la reyna Maria Estuarda (Madrid, 1589); Cinco libros de la historic de Portugal, y conquista de las islas de los Acores, 1582-1583 (Madrid, 1591); Historia de lo sucedido en Francia, 1585-1594 (Madrid, 1598); Historia general del mundo del tiempo del rey Felipe II, desde 1559 hast y su muerte (Madrid, 1601-1612, 3 vols.); Tratado, relation, y discurso historico de los movimientos de Aragon (Madrid, 1612); Comentarios de los hechos de los Espanoles, Franceses, y Venecianos en Italia, &c., 1281-1559 (Madrid, 1624, seq.).
The works of this period are Les Philosophes Salaries, Machiavel juge des revolutions de notre temps (1849), La Federazione repubblicana (1851), La Filosofia della rivoluzione (1851), L' Italia dopo it colpo di Stato (1852), Histoire des revolutions, ou Guelfes et Gibelins (1858; Italian trans., 1871-1873).
The effects of his Italian sojourn upon the nascent ideas of Copernicus may be profitably studied in Domenico Berti's Copernico e le vicende del sistema Copernicano in Italia (Roma, 1876), and in G.
Berlese, "Acari, &c., in Italia reperta " (Padova, 1892); Canestrini, Acarofauna Italiana (Padova, 1885); Canestrini and Kramer, " Demodicidae and Sarcoptidae " in Das Thierreich (Berlin, 1899) Michael, " British Oribatidae," Ray Soc.; Idem, " Oribatidae " in Das Thierreich (Berlin, 1898); Idem, " Progress and Present State of Knowledge of Acari," Journ.
Among his principal works upon these subjects may be noted the four volumes of Letteratura della nuova Italia (1860-1910); his essays upon Goethe, Ariosto, Shakespeare, Corneille, and the Poetry of Dante; his two volumes Storia della storiografia italiana del secolo XIX.
Supino's Pisa, in the "Italia artistica Series."
See Francis William Bain, Queen Christina of Sweden (London, 1890); Robert Nisbet Bain, Scandinavia (Cambridge, 1905); Christina de Suede et le Cardinal Azzolino (Paris, 1899); Claretta Gaudenzio, La Regina Christina de Suezia in Italia (Turin, 1892); Hans Emil Friis, Dronning Christina (Copenhagen, 1896); C. N.
He also edited a collection of essays dealing with Italy, under the title Italia (4 vols., Leipzig, 1874-1877).
The Archivio trentino (1882) was the organ of " Italia Irredenta."
Ottino, La Stampa periodica in Italia (Milan, 1875); Raccolta dei periodici presentata all' esposizione in Milano (1881); A.
He was the author of notes on Cluvier's Italia antiqua (1624); an edition of portions of Porphyrius (1630), with a dissertation on his life and writings, described as a model of its kind; notes on Eusebius Against Hierocles (1628), on the Sayings of the later Pythagoreans (1638), and the De diis et mundo of the neo-Platonist Sallustius (1638); Notae et castigationes in Stephani Byzantini ethnica (first published in 1684); and Codex regularum, Collection of the Early Rules of the Monastic Orders (1661).
With its numerous palaces, substantial houses, broad streets, and spacious squares, Trent presents the aspect of a thoroughly Italian city, and its inhabitants (24,868 in 1900, including a garrison of over 2000 men) speak Italian only - it is the centre of the region called Italia Irredenta by fervent Italian patriots.
Onward; id., Storia della diplomazia europea in Italia (8 vols., Turin, 1865), very important for recent history; A.
Montanelli, Memorie sull' Italia (Turin, 1853) F.
S.) Among the many editions of Machiavelli's works the one in 8 vols., dated Italia, 1813, may be mentioned, and the more comprehensive ones published by A.
In 1833 a conspiracy of the Giovane Italia Society, organized by Mazzini, was discovered, and a number of its members punished with ruthless severity.
Cappelletti, Storia di Carlo Alberto (Rome, 1891); Nicomede Bianchi, Storia della diplomazia europea in Italia (8 vols., Turin, 1865, &c.), a most important work of a general character, and the same author's Scritti e lettere di Carlo Alberto (Rome, 1879) And his Storia della monarchia piemontese (Turin, 1877); Count S.
Of modern books may be mentioned Schmidt, Histoire des Cathares; Hahn, Geschichte der neumanichaischen Ketzer; Dieckhoff, Die Waldenser im Mittelalter; Preger, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Waldensier; Cantu, Gli Eretici in Italia; Comba, Storia della Riforma in Italia, and Histoire des Vaudois d'Italie; Tocco, L'Eresia nel medio evo; Montet, Histoire litteraire des Vaudois; Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages.
Pecchio, Storia dell' economia pubblica in Italia (1829), and article in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyclopadie; for Gioja's philosophy, L.
En France depuis son origine (19 vols., Paris, 1862-1873); Ughelli, Italia sacra (lo vols., Venice, 1717-1722); P. Gams, Kirchengeschichte von Spanien (5 vols., Regensburg, 1862-1879); H.
(in the Archivio Storico Italiano, 1877); Emmer, Erzherzog Ferdinand III., Grossherzog von Toskana (Salzburg, 1871); C. Tivaroni, L' Italia durante it dominio francese, ii.
1-44 (Turin, 1889), and L' Italia durante it dominio austriaco, ii.
El' Italia (Camerino, 1901); and also the extensive bibliography in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopildie, s.v.
The huge warships "Italia" and "Dandolo" were his work, though he afterwards abandoned their type in favour of smaller and faster vessels of the "Varese" and the "Garibaldi" class.
This opinion is supported by the historian Flavius Blondus in his Italia illustrate, written about 1450, who adds that its certain origin is unknown.
Avena, Monumenti dell' Italia Meridionale (Naples, 1902), i.
Gradens., in Ughelli, Italia sacra, torn.
Morpugo, L' Ebreo errante in Italia (1891); L.
Avena, Monumenti dell' Italia Meridionale (Naples, 1902), 323 sqq.; O.
De Lucia, L'Hegel in Italia (1891).
The government tended to become more and more autocratic and to rely wholly on the all-powerful police, the spies and the priests; and, although the king showed some independence in foreign affairs, his popularity waned; the desire for a constitution was by no means dead, and the survivors of the old Carbonari gathered round Carlo Poerio, while the Giovane Italia society (independent of Mazzini), led by Benedetto Musolino, took as its motto " Unity, Liberty and Independence."
The attempt of the Giovane Italia to bring about a general revolution in 1843 only resulted in a few sporadic outbreaks easily crushed.