The sanctuaries of Shiloh and Dan lasted until the deportation of Israel (Judges xviii.
"He led them forth like sheep," in Israel in Egypt, and the music of the Witch of Endor, and the appearance of Samuel's spirit in Saul) are as modern as Gluck's.
2 After a comparison of Israel to a worthless wild vine (xv.) come two allegories, one portraying idolatrous Jerusalem as the unfaithful spouse of Yahweh (xvi.), the other describing the fate of Zedekiah (xvii.).
The following chapters (xxxiv.- xxxix.) are devoted to reconstruction: Edom, the detested enemy of Israel, is to be crushed; the nation, politically raised from the dead, with North and South united (xxxvii.), is to be established under a Davidide king; a final assault, made by Gog, is to be successfully met, 4 and then the people are to dwell in their own land in peace for ever; this Gog section is regarded by some as the beginning of Jewish apocalyptic writing.
It evidently suffered in the bloody conflicts of Damascus with Israel (1 Kings xv.
In spite of his own leaning towards mysticism he was a strong opponent of the IIasidim, a mystical sect founded by Israel Ba'al Shem Tobh (Besht) and promoted by Baer of Meseritz.
It would be reasonable to assume that Moab, Ammon, Edom and kindred tribes of Israel in the 15th and preceding centuries were included in the generic term Habiri (or Hebrews) mentioned in the Tell el-Amarna inscriptions as forming predatory bands that disturbed the security of the Canaanite dwellers west of the Jordan.
This happened when Israel Putnam was a young man.
The bitter invectives against Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt, put into Yahweh's mouth, are based wholly on the fact that these peoples are regarded as hostile and hurtful to Israel; Babylonia, though nowise superior to Egypt morally, is favoured and applauded because it is believed to be the instrument for securing ultimately the prosperity of Yahweh's people.
By some it is said to have begun at the Reformation; by some it is traced back to the days of Israel in O Egypt; 2 by most, however, it is regarded as of later Jewish origin, and as having come into existence in its present form simultaneously with the formation of the Christian Church.
See Mohnike and Zober, Stralsundische Chroniken (Stralsund, 1833-1834); Israel, Die Stadt Stralsund (Leipzig, 1893); Baier, Stralsundische Geschichten (Stralsund, 1902); and T.
The kingdom reached its highest point of importance during the reign of Solomon, but, shortly after his death, it was broken up by the rebellion of Jeroboam, who founded the separate kingdom of Israel with its capital at Shechem.
The history of Jerusalem during the succeeding three centuries consists for the most part of a succession of wars against the kingdom of Israel, the Moabites and the Syrians.
Joash, king of Israel, captured the city from Amaziah, king of Judah, and destroyed part of the fortifications, but these were rebuilt by Uzziah, the son of Amaziah, who did much to restore the city to its original prosperity.
LEVITES, or sons of Levi (son of Jacob by Leah), a sacred caste in ancient Israel, the guardians of the temple service at Jerusalem.'
All access to the Deity is restricted to the one priesthood and to the one sanctuary at Jerusalem; the worshipping subject is the nation of Israel as a unity, and the function of worship is discharged on its behalf by divinely chosen priests.
50-53), and they are taken by Yahweh as a surrogate for the male first-born of Israel (iii.
6), and though they may naturally possess property as private individuals, they alone of all the tribes of Israel possess no tribal inheritance (Num.
Of Israel, it may be observed that no adequate interpretation has yet been found of the ethnological traditions of Levi and other sons of Leah in their historical relation to one another or to the other tribes.
But the problem of fitting these into the history of Israel still remains The assumption that the earlier sources for the pre-monarchical history, as incorporated by late compilers, are necessarily trustworthy confuses the inquiry (on Gen.
But this certainly was not the leading point of view with the mass of the Rabbins; 1 and at any rate it is quite certain that the synagogue is a post-exilic institution, and therefore that the Sabbath in old Israel must have been entirely different from the Sabbath of the Scribes.
So it was in old Israel: the Sabbath was one of the stated religious feasts, like the new moon and the three great .agricultural sacrificial celebrations (Hosea ii.
13), and the character of a sign between Yahweh and Israel ascribed to it in the post-exilic law.
Even if it could be shown that the Pentateuchal regulations were universally observed in Israel from Mosaic times, it would not preclude a certain indebtedness to Babylonia for at least the germ of the institution.
On the other hand, complete indentity of regulations and observance in Babylonia and Israel at one period need not show more than development on the same lines.
Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism and in Christianity (1899); E.
He wrote The Religion of Israel (1882); Quotations from the Old Testament in the New Testament (1884); Judaism and Christianity (1890); and the Book of Proverbs (1899) in the "International Critical Commentary"; and edited a translation of Erdmann's commentary on Samuel (1877) in Lange's commentaries; Murray's Origin of the Psalms (1880); and, in Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel (Hebrew text and English version, 1899).
His primary object was to prove that the world was built after the same shape and fashion as the Ark made by the Children of Israel in the desert; but he was able to show that the Malay Peninsula had to be rounded and thereafter a course steered in a northerly direction if China was to be reached.
24, Omri, king of Israel, bought Samaria from a certain Shemer (whose name is said to be the origin of that of the city), and transferred thither his capital from Tirzah.
Asia had been in vassalage; in the case of Israel at least since Menahem (2 Kings xv.
He was succeeded by Shalmaneser IV., and the king of Israel, with the rest, attempted to revolt.
(3) The Tell el-Amarna inscriptions indicate that the term Elohim might even be applied in abject homage to an Egyptian monarch as the use of the term ilani in this connexion obviously implies.3 The religion of the Arabian tribes in the days of Mahomet, of which a picture is presented to us by Wellhausen in his Remains of Arabic Heathendom, furnishes some suggestive indications of the religion that prevailed in nomadic Israel before as well as during the lifetime of Moses.
Lastly it should be recollected that the entire body of the fragments of tradition and literature belonging to northern Israel has come down to us through the channel of Judaean recensions.
Two goats were provided by the ancient Hebrews on the Day of Atonement; the high priest sent one into the desert, after confessing on it the sins of Israel; it was not permitted to run free but was probably cast over a precipice; the other was sacrificed as a sin-offering.
(2) The eldest son of Saul, who, together with his father, freed Israel from the crushing oppression of the Philistines (I Sam.
Both these documents are considered to have originated in the Northern kingdom, Israel, where also in the 8th century appeared the prophets Amos and Hosea.
7), Yahweh made for Israel "statute and judgment" and "proved them."
In estimating the work of one who stands at the head of the religious and legal institutions of Israel, it is necessary to refrain from interpreting the traditions from a modern legal standpoint or in the light of subsequent ideas and beliefs for which the sources themselves give no authority.
Smith, Prophets of Israel, p. Iii); more prominence is evidently to be ascribed to the influence of the half-Arabian Jethro or Hobab, and this must be taken into consideration with what is known of Kenite and kindred clans (Exod.
The traditions would seem to point to the institution of new principles in the religion of Yahweh, and would associate with it not merely Moses but those foreign elements which are subsequently found in Israel and Judah.
In Jewish Church and Prophets of Israel are most helpful; see also J.-M.
Budde, Religion of Israel to the Exile, ch.