Taking this ideal limit as a theoretical or absolute zero, the value of H may be represented on the diagram by the whole area included between the two adiabatics BAZ, CDZ' down to the points where they intersect the isothermal of absolute zero, or the zero isopiestic OV asymptotically at infinity.
If the substance in any state such as B were allowed to expand adiabatically (dH = o) down to the absolute zero, at which point it contains no heat and exerts no pressure, the whole of its available heat energy might theoretically be recovered in the form of external work, represented on the diagram by the whole area BAZcb under the adiabatic through the state-point B, bounded by the isometric Bb and the zero isopiestic bV.
Let BE be an isometric through B meeting AD in E, and EC an isopiestic through E meeting BC in C. Let BA, CD be adiabatics through B and C meeting the isothermal 0" in A and D.
It is generally convenient to divide the path into two steps, isothermal and isometric, or isothermal and isopiestic, and to integrate along each separately.
R is represented by the rectangle MDdO, bounded by the isopiestic and the isometric through D.
The function G is represented by the negative area D"DM under the isothermal, bounded by the isopiestic DM and the axis of pressure.