GOTHITE, or Goethite, a mineral composed of an iron hydrate, Fe203.H20, crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with diaspore and manganite.
Crystals of barytes are orthorhombic and isomorphous with the strontium and lead sulphates (celestite and anglesite); they are usually very perfectly developed and present great variety of form.
All these are strikingly alike in appearance and general characters, differing essentially only in chemical composition, and it would seem better to reserve the name cerargyrite for the whole group, using the names chlorargyrite (AgC1), embolite (Ag(Cl, Bl)), bromargyrite (AgBr) and iodembolite (Ag(C1, Br, I)) for the different isomorphous members of the group. They are cubic in crystallization, with the cube and the octahedron as prominent forms, but crystals are small and usually indistinct; there is no cleavage.
It crystallizes in octahedra isomorphous with stannic oxide.
More useful is the property of isomorphous substances of forming mixed crystals, which are strictly isomorphous with their constituents, for all variations in composition.
9 illustrates the first case: the ordinates represent specific volumes, and the abscissae denote the composition of isomorphous mixtures of ammonium and potassium dihydrogen phosphates, which mutually take one another up to the extent of 20% to form homogeneous crystals.
Magnesium sulphate (orthorhombic) takes up ferrous sulphate (monoclinic) to the extent of 19%, forming isomorphous orthorhombic crystals; ferrous sulphate, on the other hand, takes up magnesium sulphate to the extent of 54% to form monoclinic crystals.
By plotting the specific volumes of these mixed crystals as ordinates, it is found that they fall on two lines, the upper corresponding to the orthorhombic crystals, the lower to the monoclinic. From this we may conclude that these salts are isodimorphous: the upper line represents isomorphous crystals of stable orthorhombic magnesium sulphate and unstable orthorhombic ferrous sulphate, the lower line isomor phous crystals of stable monoclinic ferrous sulphate and unstable monoclinic magnesium sulphate.
Isomorphism is most clearly discerned between elements of analogous chemical properties; and from the wide generality of such observations attempts have been made to form a classification of elements based on isomorphous replacements.
For a detailed comparison of the isomorphous relations of the elements the reader is referred to P. von Groth, Chemical Crystallography.
Hedenbergite, or calcium iron pyroxene, is a black mineral closely allied to diopside and, owing to the isomorphous replacement of iron by magnesium, there is no sharp line of division between them.
Tschermak, in 1878, regarded them as isomorphous mixtures of the following fundamental molecules: H 2 KA1 3 (SiO 4) 3, corresponding with muscovite; Mg 6 Si 3 0 12, a hypothetical polymer of olivine; and H4S15012, a hypothetical silicic acid.
Clarke (1889-1893) supposes them to be substitution derivatives of normal aluminium orthosilicate A14(S104)3, in which part of the aluminium is replaced by alkalis, magnesium, iron and the univalent groups (MgF), (A1F2),(AlO), (MgOH); an excess of silica is explained by the isomorphous replacement of H 4 SiO 4 by the acid H4S130s.
The artificial preparation of minerals, especially of apatite and isomorphous minerals and of crystalline oxides, was another subject in which he made many experiments.
It may be obtained as jet black octahedra (isomorphous with thoria) by fusion with borax.
K 2 SnO 3 into K2SnF6), which are closely analogous to, and isomorphous with, fluosilicates.
Stannic Fluoride, SnF 4, is obtained in solution by dissolving hydrated stannic oxide in hydrofluoric acid; it forms a characteristic series of salts, the stannofluorides, M 2 SnF 6, isomorphous with the silico-, titano-, germanoand zirconofluorides.
Neither mechanical nor magnetic concentration can effect much in the way of separation when, as in many complex ores, carbonates of iron, calcium and magnesium replace the isomorphous zinc carbonate, when some iron sulphide containing less sulphur than pyrites replaces zinc sulphide, and when gold and silver are contained in the zinc ore itself.
Zinc sulphate, like magnesium sulphate, unites with the sulphates of the potassium metals and of ammonium into crystalline double salts, ZnS04 R2S04-+-6H20, isomorphous with one another and the magnesium salts.
Ilmenite is isomorphous with geikielite, MgTiO 3, and pyrophanite, MnTiO 3; many of the "rare minerals" - aeschynite, euxenite, polycrase, &c. - contain titanates (and also niobates).
Rutile assumes tetragonal forms isomorphous with cassiterite, SnO 2 (and also zircon, ZrSiO 4); anatase is also tetragonal, and brookite or thorhombic. Rutile is the most stable and anatase the least, a character reflected in the decrease in density from rutile (4.2) and brookite (4.0) to anatase (3.9).
The salts of this acid are well known; they are isomorphous with the silico-, stannoand zircono-fluorides.
Other species belonging to this isomorphous group of orthorhombic minerals are marcasite (FeS2), lollingite (FeAs 2), safflorite (CoAs2) and rammelsbergite (NiAs 2).
Zirconia can be obtained crystalline, in a form isomorphous with cassiterite and rutile, by fusing the amorphous modification with borax, and dissolving out with sulphuric acid.
It forms double salts, named zircono-fluorides, which are isomorphous with the stanniand titani-fluorides.
The mineral brushite, CaHPO 4.2H 2 0, which is isomorphous with the acid arsenate pharmacolite, CaHAs04.2H20, is an acid phosphate, and assumes monoclinic forms. The normal salt may be obtained artificially, as a white gelatinous precipitate which shrinks greatly on drying, by mixing solutions of sodium hydrogen phosphate, ammonia, and calcium chloride.
Since argentite (Ag 2 S) is isomorphous with galena, it is probable that the silver isomorphously replaces lead, but it is to be noted that native silver has been detected as an enclosure in galena.
Epsom salts crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, being isomorphous with the corresponding zinc and nickel sulphates, and also with magnesium chromate.
Chromous sulphate, CrS04 7H 2 0, isomorphous with ferrous sulphate, results on dissolving the metal in dilute sulphuric acid or, better, by dissolving chromous acetate in dilute sulphuric acid, when it separates in blue crystals on cooling the solution.
Lanthanum sulphate, La2(S04)3.9H20, forms six-sided prisms, isomorphous with those of the corresponding cerium salt.
Wollaston in the angles of the rhombohedra of the carbonates isomorphous with calc-spar, he observed that the angle in the case of calc-spar varied with the temperature.
He obtained selenic acid in 1827 and showed that its salts are isomorphous with the sulphates, while a few years later he proved that the same thing is true of the manganates and the sulphates, and of the permanganates and the perchlorates.
Thallous Perchlorate, T1C10 4, and periodate, Tl10 4, are interesting inasmuch as they are isomorphous with the corresponding potassium salts.
It may be obtained in at least two different forms, one isomorphous with NaCl.
2H 2 O, by concentrating the solution between 15° C. and 20°C.; the other, isomorphous with FeCl 2.4H 2 0, by slow evaporation of the mother liquors from the former.
It crystallizes in dark purple-red prisms, isomorphous with potassium perchlorate.
It is an amorphous white powder; but it may also be obtained in crystals isomorphous with cassiterite by heating the amorphous form with borax to a very high temperature.
Evaporation of a solution at ordinary temperatures gives colourless monoclinic prisms of Th(SO 4) 2.9H 2 O, which is isomorphous with uranium sulphate, U(S04)2.9H20.
It forms double salts such as MgTh(NO 3) 6.8H 2 O, which are isomorphous with the corresponding cerium compounds.
The rubidium salts are generally colourless, mostly soluble in water and isomorphous with the corresponding potassium salts.
The alkaline perchlorates are isomorphous with the permanganates.
Copper arsenate is similar to cupric phosphate, and the resemblance is to be observed in the naturally occurring copper arsenates, which are generally isomorphous with the corresponding phosphates.
It crystallizes as BaBr 2.2H 2 O isomorphous with barium chloride.
Distinct crystals are rarely met with; these are rhombohedral and isomorphous with arsenic and bismuth; they have a perfect cleavage parallel to the basal plane, c (111), and are sometimes twinned on a rhombohedral plane, e (1 ro).
Haematite crystallizes in the rhombohedral system, and is isomorphous with corundum (Al203).
Other pairs of isomorphous argentiferous minerals are: the cubic polybasite, 9Ag2S Sb2S3, and pearceite, 9Ag2S As2S3; and the germanium minerals argyrodite, 4Ag 2 S GeS2, and canfieldite, 4Ag 2 S (Sn, Ge) S2.
The leading silver minerals are native silver; argentite or silver glance, Ag 2 S, usually containing small amounts of lead, copper and tin; dyscrasite or antimonial silver, Ag 2 Sb to Ag,3Sb, an isomorphous mixture of silver and antimony; proustite or light red silver ore, Ag 3 AsS 3; pyrargyrite or dark red silver ore, Ag 3 SbS 3; stephanite, Ag 5 SbS 4; miargyrite, AgSbS2; stromeyerite, CuAgS; polybasite, 9(Cu 2 S,Ag 2 S) (Sb 2 S 3, As 2 S 3); cerargyrite or horn silver, AgCI; bromite or bromargyrite, AgBr; embolite, Ag(C1,Br); iodite or iodargyrite, AgI.
The selenates are isomorphous with the chromates and sulphates.
Ferrous sulphate forms large green crystals belonging to the monoclinic system; rhombic crystals, isomorphous with zinc sulphate, are obtained by inoculating a solution with a crystal of zinc sulphate, and triclinic crystals of the formula FeSO 4.5H 2 O by inoculating with copper sulphate.
By evaporating a solution containing free sulphuric acid in a vacuum, the hepta-hydrated salt first separates, then the penta-, and then a tetra-hydrate, FeSO44H2O, isomorphous with manganese sulphate.