The chief centres of export are Adrianople (more than half), Constantinople and Smyrna, the others being Brusa, Beirut, Ismid, Mytilene and Salonica.
Up to 1888 the only railways existing in the Turkish Empire (exclusive of Egypt) were, in Europe, the Constantinople-Adrianople-Philippopolis line and the SalonicaMitrovitza line (finished in 1872); and in Asia Minor, the SmyrnaAidin (completed in 1866), the Smyrna-Cassaba (completed in 1866), the Constantinople-Ismid (completed in 1872), the MersinaAdana (completed in 1886).
The first granted was for the extension of the Constantinople-Ismid railway to Angora to a group of German and British capitalists in 1888.
From its station on the Ismid-Angora railway.
The west coast is indented by two deep inlets, (t) the northernmost, the Gulf of Ismid (anc. Gulf of Astacus), penetrating between 40 and 50 m.
Into the interior as far as Ismid (anc. Nicomedia), separated by an isthmus of only about 25 m.
The only other places of importance at the present day are Ismid (Nicomedia) and Scutari.
The most important are: - Yalova, in the Ismid sanjak; Brusa, Chitli, Terje and Eskishehr, in the Brusa vilayet; Tuzla, in the Karasi; Cheshme, Ilija, Hierapolis (with enormous alum deposits), and Alashehr, in the Aidin; Terzili Hammam and Iskelib in the Angora; Boli in the Kastamuni; and Kha y sa, in the Sivas.
The lines of railway now open are: - (I) From Haidar Pasha to Ismid, Eski-shehr and Angora; (2) from Mudania to Brusa; (3) from Eski-shehrtoAfium-Kara-hissar, Konia and Bulgurli, east of Eregli (the first section of the Bagdad railway).
Anatolia 1 Archipelago, 2 Bigha, 3 Brusa, 4 Aidin (Smyrna) 5 Ismid, 6 Kastamuni, 7 Angora.
It appears to find its way to Constantinople via the port of Ismid, and hence is known also by the latter name.