Unlike Amos and Micah, Isaiah was not only the prophet of denunciation but also the prophet of hope.
Charles Augustus Briggs, tried for heresy for his inaugural address in 1891 as professor of biblical theology at Union Seminary (in which he attacked the inerrancy of the Bible, held the composite character of the Hexateuch and of the Book of Isaiah and taught that sanctification is not complete at death), was acquitted by the presbytery of New York, but was declared guilty and was suspended from its ministry by the General Assembly of 1893.
In addition to these complete commentaries, we have fragments of some others (of that on Isaiah, for example), principally met with in catenae.
The religion of the Hebrew race - properly the Jews - now enters on a new stage, for it should be observed that it was Amos, Isaiah and Micah - prophets of Judah - who laid the actual foundations.
To the same period belong the book of Micah, the earlier parts of the books of Samuel, of Isaiah and of Proverbs, and perhaps some Psalms. In 722 B.C. Samaria was taken and the Northern kingdom ceased to exist.
In the exile, but probably after 50o B.C., an important section of the Hexateuch, usually called the Priest's Code (P), was drawn up. At various times in the same century are to be placed the book of Job, the post-exilic parts of Isaiah, the books of Joel, Jonah, Malachi and the Song of Songs.
In Isaiah both aspects - divine universal sovereignty and justice, taught by Amos, and divine loving-kindness to Israel and God's claims on His people's allegiance, taught by Hosea - are fully expressed.
Even more insistently does Isaiah present the great truth of God's universal sovereignty.
9-10) in the dark days of Ahaz (735-734 B.C.) were among the oracles which God commanded Isaiah " to seal up among his disciples " (verse 16), and that they were quoted once more with effect as the armies of Sennacherib closed around Jerusalem.
The talismanic name Immanuel became the nucleus out of which the later Messianic prophecies of Isaiah grew.
Thus Isaiah became in that troubled age the true founder of Messianic prophecy.
The Messianic prophecies of Isaiah, the prophet of faith and deliverance, were destined to reverberate through all subsequent centuries.
The next notable contribution to the permanent growth of Hebrew prophetic religion was made about a century after the lifetime of Isaiah by Jeremiah and Ezekiel.
It is not to be supposed that either Amos or Isaiah would have countenanced the total suppression of all sacrificial observance.
The outlook appeared indeed far darker to Jeremiah than it seemed more than a century before to Isaiah in the evil days of Jotham and Ahaz, " when the whole head was sick and the whole heart faint " (Isa.
In the Deutero-Isaiah (chaps.
These views of Duhm, in which a severe distinction is thus drawn between the representation of Yahweh's servant in the servant-passages, and that which meets us in the rest of the Deutero-Isaiah, have been challenged by a succession of critics.'
In the Deutero-Isaiah the meaning of Israel's sufferings is exhibited as vicarious.
The Deutero-Isaiah closes a great prophetic succession, which begins with Amos, continues in Isaiah in even greater splendour with the added elements of hope and Messianic expectation, and receives further accession in Jeremiah with his special teaching on inward spiritual and personal religion which constituted the new covenant of divine grace.
It is mentioned by Isaiah (x.
In this crisis we meet with Isaiah (q.v.), one of the finest of Hebrew prophets.
If the impression left upon current thought can be estimated from certain of the utterances of the court-prophet Isaiah and the Judaean countryman Micah, the light which these throw upon internal conditions must also be used to gauge the real extent of the religious changes ascribed to Hezekiah.
To Isaiah (1895); Jew.
21, as well as in Isaiah ix.
12), and with the wrathful intervention of Yahweh referred to by Isaiah (xxviii.
The term "day star" (so rendered in the Revised Version) was used poetically by Isaiah for the king of Babylon: "How art thou fallen from heaven, 0 Lucifer, son of the morning!
1), were interpreted by the Christian Fathers as referring to the passage in Isaiah; whence, in Christian theology, Lucifer came to be regarded as the name of Satan before his fill.
It is to boats of this description that Isaiah probably refers in the " vessels of bulrushes upon the waters " (xviii.
For Amos and Isaiah were able to single out those loftier spiritual and ethical elements which lay implicit in Mosaism and to lift them into their due place of prominence.
Finally the Deutero-Isaiah conveyed to captive Israel the message of Yahweh's unceasing love and care, and the certainty of their return to Judaea and the restoration of the national prosperity which Ezekiel had already announced in the earlier period of the exile.
(Giessen, 1900); Karl Marti in his well-known commentary on Isaiah, and F.
Another and more drastic reform than that which had been previously initiated (probably at the instigation of Isaiah and Micah) now became necessary to save the state.
It is, of course, true that the ethical conception of sin as violation of righteousness and an act of rebellion against the divine righteous will had been developed since the days of Amos and Isaiah; but, as we have already observed, cultus and prophetic teaching were separated by an immense gulf, and in spite of the reformation of 621 B.C. still remain separated.
In the Deutero-Isaiah we reach the highest point in the evolution of prophetism.
In the Trito-Isaiah during the post-exilian period, and in such psalm literature as Pss.
The first is represented by the Deutero-Isaiah, who constitutes the climax and close of Hebrew prophetism, which is henceforth (with the possible exception of the Trito-Isaiah, Malachi and Jonah, who reproduce some features of the earlier prophecy) a virtually arrested development.
The pre-exilian prophets (especially Isaiah) spoke of the forthcoming crisis in the world's history as a " day of the Lord."
The arrested prophetic movement of Jeremiah and Deutero-Isaiah reappears in John the Baptist and Jesus after an interval of more than five centuries.
On apocalyptic generally the introductions to Charles's Book of Enoch, Apocalypse of Baruch, Ascension of Isaiah and Book of Jubilees, should be carefully noted.
Among the most widely circulated were the commentaries on Jeremiah, Isaiah and Ezekiel, the Vaticinia pontificum and the De oneribus ecclesiae.
Discussing the thrice holy in Isaiah vi.
Procopius's theological writings consist of commentaries on the Octateuch, the books of Kings and Chronicles, Isaiah, the Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.
It is of Jewish origin, and recounts the martyrdom of Isaiah at the hands of Manasseh.
12, Isaiah li.
The speaker, who is not an individual but speaks in the name of a community, bears a remarkable resemblance to the " suffering servant " of Isaiah lii.
It is at least remarkable that the names Zebulon and Naphtali in Isaiah ix.
- Isaiah is the name of the greatest, and both in life and in death the most influential of the Old Testament prophets.
We know but little of Isaiah's predecessors and models in the prophetic art (it were fanaticism to exclude the element of human preparation); but certainly even the acknowledged prophecies of Isaiah (and much more the disputed ones) could no more have come into existence suddenly and without warning than the masterpieces of Shakespeare.
Cheyne's Prophecies of Isaiah, ii.
218) lists are generally given of the points of contact both in phraseology and in ideas between Isaiah and the prophets nearly contemporary with him.