ISAAC CHAUNCEY (1772-1840), American naval commander, was born at Black Rock, Connecticut, on the 10th of February '772.
His parents dying during his infancy, he was brought up by his uncle, Sir Isaac Tillard.
In 1750 he was appointed by a wealthy silk-merchant, Isaac Bernhard, as teacher to his children.
His reflections upon scientific, philosophical and religious questions are contained in four addresses upon The Genius of Sir Isaac Newton, The Right Use of Leisure, The Claims of Science and The Social Aspect of Intellectual Culture, which he delivered and printed at different times.
While still an undergraduate he formed a league with John Herschel and Charles Babbage, to conduct the famous struggle of "d-ism versus dot-age," which ended in the introduction into Cambridge of the continental notation in the infinitesimal calculus to the exclusion of the fluxional notation of Sir Isaac Newton.
ISAAC BEN SOLOMON LURIA (1534-1572), Jewish mystic, was born in Jerusalem.
In that year Isaac Luria was living in Cairo and trading as a spice merchant with his headquarters in Alexandria.
Although for a time it was lost sight of on the continent, Sir Isaac Newton thought so highly of this book that he prepared an annotated edition which was published in Cambridge in 1672, with the addition of the plates which had been planned by Varenius, but not produced by the original publishers.
ISAAC ABRABANEL, called also Abravanel, Abarbanel (1437-1508), Jewish statesman, philosopher, theologian and commentator, was born at Lisbon of an ancient family which claimed descent from the royal house of David.
The most important of them for the understanding of the gemara (Babhli) is that of Rashi 3 (Solomon ben Isaac, d.
Two of these may be mentioned which are usually found in the larger editions: that by Isaac Alfasi (i.e.
The most important writers are Yoseh ben Yoseh, probably in the 6th century, chiefly known for his compositions for the day of Atonement, Eleazar Qalir, the founder of the payyetanic style, perhaps in the 7th century, Seadiah, and the Spanish school consisting of Joseph ibn Abitur (died in 970), Ibn Gabirol, Isaac Gayyath, Moses ben Ezra, Abraham ben Ezra and Judah ha-levi, who will be mentioned below; later, Moses ben Nahman and Isaac Luria the Kabbalist.'
Mention need only be made further of Isaac of Troki, whose anti-Christian polemic (1593) was translated into English by Moses Mocatta under the title of Faith Strengthened (1851); Solomon of Troki, whose Appiryon, an account of Karaism, was written at the request of Pufendorf (about 1700); and Abraham Firkovich, who, in spite of his impostures, did much for the literature of his people about the middle of the 19th century.
In North Africa, probably in the 9th century, appeared the book known under the name of Eldad ha-Dani, giving an account of the ten tribes, from which much medieval legend was derived; 2 and in Kairawan the medical and philosophical treatises of Isaac Israeli, who died in 932.
He also composed liturgical poems. At the end of the Ilth century Judah ibn Bal'am wrote grammatical works and commentaries (on the Pentateuch, Isaiah, &c.) in Arabic; the liturgist Isaac Gayyath (d.
In 1040 at Mainz), a famous Talmudist and com mentator, his pupil Jacob ben Yaqar, and Moses of Narbonne, called ha-Darshan, the "Exegete," were the forerunners of the greatest of all Jewish commentators, Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi), who died at Troyes in 1105.
The Bahir, a sort of outline of the Zohar, and traditionally ascribed to Nehunya (1st century), is believed by some to be the work of Isaac the Blind ben Abraham of Posquiêres (d.
He wrote numerous translations, of Galen, Aristotle, Ilariri, IIunain ben Isaac and Maimonides, as well as several original works, a Sepher Anaq in imitation of Moses ben Ezra, and treatises on grammar and medicine (Rephuath geviyyah), but he is best known for his Talzkemoni, a diwan in the style of Ilariri's Magimat.
His son Moses, who died about the end of the 13th century, translated the rest of Maimonides, much of Averroes, the lesser Canon of Avicenna, Euclid's Elements (from the Arabic version), Ibn al-Jazzar's Viaticum, medical works of IIunain ben Isaac (Johannitius) and Razi (Rhazes), besides works of less-known Arabic authors.
It also originated in Spain, where Joseph ben Isaac Qimhi was born, who migrated to S.
A younger contemporary of David Qimhi was Abraham ben Isaac Bedersi (i.e.
Isaac ben Moses (d.
About the same time Isaac Israeli wrote his Yesodh `Olam and other astronomical works which were much studied.
Both the 14th and 15th centuries in Spain were largely taken up with controversy, as by Isaac ibn Pulgar (about 1350), and Shem Tobh ibn Shaprut (about 1380), who translated St Matthew's gospel into Hebrew.
At the end of the century Isaac ben Moses, called Profiat Duran (Efodi), is chiefly known as an antiChristian controversialist (letter to Me'ir Alguadez), but also wrote on grammar (Ma`aseh Efod) and a commentary on the Moreh.
In the first place, I must tell you that I was born in Omaha, and my father, who was a politician, named me Oscar Zoroaster Phadrig Isaac Norman Henkle Emmannuel Ambroise Diggs, Diggs being the last name because he could think of no more to go before it.