Irrigation works have been carried out in various parts.
The method of this irrigation is peculiar.
Irrigation benefits a sandy soil, draining a marshy soil.
But where irrigation is employed the yield of crops is excellent.
The Nerbudda is nowhere utilized for irrigation, and navigation is confined to the lower section.
The agriculture of the region bordering the Tigris and Euphrates, like that of Egypt, depended largely on irrigation, and traces of ancient canals are still to be seen in Babylonia.
Both draining and irrigation are noticed, though the latter but slightly.
The rainfall is uncertain and low, however, never exceeding 40 in., and on the supply of water by irrigation the future of the industry mainly depends.
He couldn't develop new irrigation techniques, invent new machinery, or create new fertilizers.
Except on the scattered oases, where irrigation from springs and mountain streams has reclaimed small patches, the desert is barren and forbidding in the extreme.
For the rest, Syria needs irrigation; and since neither of its larger rivers, Orontes or Jordan, flowing as these do in deep beds, is of much use for this purpose, all Mid-Syria, except the lacustrine oases, is a region mainly occupied by pastures, and yielding only thin cereal crops.
If you look back across the span of time, you see wood plows being used in 4000 BC, then irrigation five hundred years later.
There are several lakes of great depth and streams well fitted for the purposes of irrigation, of which full advantage is taken by the natives.
Irrigation, introduced in 1888 by the orange growers, has been adapted by other farmers, especially the tobacco-growers of Gadsden county, and so the evil effects of the droughts, so common from February to June, are avoided.
Much of the soil of the desert appears to be alluvial; there are numerous traces of streams having formerly passed over it, and still, where irrigation is at all practicable, fertility in the clayey tract follows; but the rains are scanty, the wells few and generally 100 ft.
Among a variety of premiums awarded by the state are those for the best cultivated estates and for irrigation works, and to the owners of the best stallions and brood-mares.
Many regions suffer permanently from deficient rainfall; in others, owing to the absence of irrigation works, the water supply is lost, while the burning of the grass at the end of summer, a practice adopted by many farmers, tends to impoverish the soil and render it arid.
Owing to the high barrier which shuts off almost all Syria from the sea, and precipitates vapours mainly on the western slope, little of the land is highly productive without irrigation, except the narrow littoral strip which was the ancient Phoenicia, and the small deltas, such as that of Latakia (Laodicea).
It also conducts campaigns against locusts and other pests and helps irrigation settlements.
It has published a topographical map of the Nile valley (1:50,000), an irrigation map (I:10o,000), a general map (1: 2 50,000), numerous cadastral plans, &c. Work on similar lines is carried on in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
The fact also that many of the most ancient of these ruins, like Ur, Lagash (Sirpurla), Larsa, Erech, Nippur, Sippara and Babylon, were situated on the banks of the great canals would indicate that the control of the waters of the rivers by a system of canalization and irrigation was one of the first achievements of civilization.
Attica was famous for its olives and figs, but general agriculture excelled in Peloponnesus, where, by means of irrigation and drainage, all the available land was utilized.
The work on agriculture' of Ibn-al-Awam, who lived in the 12th century A.D., treats of the varieties of soils, manuring, irrigation, ploughing, sowing, harvesting, stock, horticulture, arboriculture and plant diseases, and is a lasting record of their skill and industry.
Finished, with the object of amassing sufficient capital to construct a dike for his native town of Tus, which suffered greatly from defective irrigation, a project which had been the chief dream of his childhood.
Beneath the surface, but this was little used for irrigation for the first few years of the development of this field, when water was pumped from the streams and canals.
The benefits of canal irrigation were introduced in the 'seventies, and the revenue thus doubled.
To add to the uncertainties of navigation, the inhabitants along the eastern bank of the stream frequently dig new canals for irrigation purposes, which both reduces the water of the river and tends to make it shift its channel.
The state came under British management, and the administration was improved, the revenue increased, a system of irrigation developed, new tanks and wells constructed and an excellent system of roads and public buildings organized.
It is a region of lakes and morasses, of arid plains and high temperatures, but experiments with irrigation toward the end of the 19th century were highly successful and considerable tracts have since been brought under cultivation.
And advances in drip irrigation, which itself isn't exactly new but is becoming far more widespread and ever more efficient, allows crops to be grown with massively less water.
The Panlaung and Zawgyi rivers from the Shan States flow through the district and are utilized for the numerous irrigation canals.
The vegetation of each region has its distinctive character, modified here and there by elevation, irrigation from mountain streams, and by the saline character of the soil.
It is exceedingly picturesque, the villages clinging to the sides of the mountain glens from which water is drawn for irrigation; and excellent fruit is grown.
Milan undertook the irrigation works which enriched the soil of Lombardy for ever.
The object is to allow sufficient water to drain off to the westward for the due irrigation of the land, while the Hillah bed still retains the main volume of the stream, and is navigable to the sea.
Save where irrigation has reclaimed small areas, the whole region is a vast desert, though locally only some of the interior plains are known as "deserts."
The Truckee river flows with more vigour, having its source in Lake Tahoe, in California, at an altitude of 6225 ft., and entering the Carson river through an irrigation canal :completed in 1905; before this date it flowed into Pyramid Lake and Lake Winnemucca in the depression at the foot of the Sierra Nevada.
The three principal areas in which irrigation is practicable are along the Humboldt river, in the plains watered by the Carson, Truckee and Walker rivers, and at the foot of the mountains along the western edge of the state.
The survey for the Truckee-Carson system was begun in 1902, with the object of utilizing the waters flowing to waste in western Nevada for the irrigation and reclamation of the adjacent arid regions in Churchill, Lyon and Storey counties.
The Mugan steppe is, however, in spite of its dryness, a more fertile region in virtue of the irrigation practised; but the Kura has excavated its bed too deeply to admit of that being done along its course.
The great canal was not begun; irrigation works were started but were soon given up. The letters of Kleber and Menou (the successors of Bonaparte) show that the expenditure on public works had been so reckless that the colony was virtually bankrupt at the time of Bonaparte's departure; and William Hamilton, who travelled through Egypt in 1802, found few traces, other than military, of the French occupation.
It is considered that with facilities for irrigation Andalusia could produce 150,000 bales annually.
In this region irrigation is widely used.
These prairies are traversed by ridges, which facilitate irrigation, and are underlaid by an impervious subsoil, which facilitates both effective storage and drainage.
Irrigation is almost entirely confined to rice farms. In the prairie region there is abundant water at depths of too to 400 ft.
Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, No.
This supersedes artificial irrigation, and the plains so watered yield abundantly in rice, jute and mustard.
In the neighbourhood of the Vaal, confluence, where the river passes through alluvial land, and at some other places, the waters of the Orange are used, and are capable of being much more largely used, for irrigation purposes.
In this tract the rainfall is nowhere sufficient for the purposes of agriculture, which is only possible by help of irrigation; and the fixed population (which contains a non-Turkish element) is comparatively small, and restricted to the towns and the districts near the rivers.
The other cereals may be seen occasionally, where artificial irrigation is practised, in all stages of progress at all seasons of the year, though the operations of agriculture are, as a general rule, limited to the rainy months, when alone is the requisite supply of water commonly forthcoming.
Many bayous are convertible by improvement into excellent drainage and irrigation canals.
The irrigated rice area increased 92.9% from 1899 to 1902, and the construction cost of irrigation works ($4747,359 in 1902; $12.25 per irrigated acre) 87.7% in the same years.
- Climatic conditions in Egypt differ radically from those in the United States, the rainfall being so small as to be quite insufficient for the needs of the plant, very little rain indeed falling in the Nile Delta during the whole growing season of the crop: yet Egypt is in order the third cottonproducing country of the world, elaborate irrigation works supplying the crop with the requisite water.