MYAUNGMYA, a district in the Irrawaddy division of lower Burma, formed in 1893 out of a portion of Bassein district, and reconstituted in 1903.
Snowy to about 27° N., flow the great rivers of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, the Mekong, the Menam, the Salween, and the Irrawaddy, the valleys of which form the main portions of the states of CochinChina (including Tongking and Cambodia), of Siam (including Laos) and of Burma.
Woodthorpe was followed into Burmese fields by many others; and amongst the earliest travellers to those mysterious mountains which hide the sources of the Irrawaddy, the Salween and the Mekong, was Prince Henri d'Orleans Burma was rapidly brought under survey; Siam was already in the 'mapmaking hands of James M'Carthy, whilst Curzon and Warrington Smyth added much to our knowledge of its picturesque coast districts.
The comparatively restricted area which still remains for close investigation includes the most easterly sources of the Brahmaputra, the most northerly sources of the Irrawaddy, and some 300 m.
M., and consists of a series of ranges, for the most part running north and south, and intersected by valleys, all leading towards the Irrawaddy, which drains the country.
Of the Kachins or Chingpaw were the Indo-Chinese race who, before the beginnings of history, but after the Mon-Annam wave had covered Indo-China, forsook their home in western China to pour over the region where Tibet, Assam, Burma and China converge, and that the Chingpaw are the residue left round the headquarters of the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin after those branches, destined to become the Tibetans, the Nagas, the Burmans and the Kuki Chins, had gone westwards and southwards.
According to the Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation of 1895, administrative responsibility is accepted by the British government on the left bank of the Irrawaddy for the country south of the Nmaikha, and on the right bank for the country south of a line drawn from the confluence of the Malikha and Nmaikha through the northern limit of the Laban district and including the jade mines.
PAKOKKU, a district in the Minbu division of Upper Burma, lying west of the Irrawaddy river and south of Mandalay, with the line of the Chin hills as a general boundary on the west.
The part of the district along the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers is alluvial.
The headquarters town, Pakokku, stands on the right bank of the Irrawaddy, and has grown into importance since the British occupation.
The steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company call here regularly, and it is the starting-point for the vessels plying on the Chindwin.
The Pegu Yoma range separates it from Toungoo district, and forms the water-parting between the rivers Irrawaddy and Sittang; there are also many small elevations.
The Irrawaddy is the principal navigable river.
And the sources of the Irrawaddy as far as Cambodia and 7° N.
The province falls into three natural divisions: Arakan with the Chin hills, the Irrawaddy basin, and the old province of Tenasserim, together with the portion of the Shan and Karen-ni states in the basin of the Salween, and part of Kengtung in the western basin of the Mekong.
First, there is the highland tract including the hilly country at the sources of the Chindwin and the upper waters of the Irrawaddy, the Upper Chindwin, Katha, Bhamo, Myitkyina and Ruby Mines districts, with the Kachin hills and a great part of the Northern Shan states.
It stretches along both sides of the Irrawaddy from the north of Mandalay to Thayetmyo, and embraces the Lower Chindwin, Shwebo, Sagaing, Mandalay, Kyaukse, Meiktila, Yamethin, Myingyan, Magwe, Pakokku and Minbu districts.
This tract consists mostly of undulating lowlands, but it is broken towards the south by the Pegu Yomas, a considerable range of hills which divides the two remaining tracts of the Irrawaddy basin.
To the east lies a tract of country which, though geographically a part of the Irrawaddy basin, is cut off from it by the Yomas, and forms a separate system draining into the Sittang river.
On the east the Kachin, Shan and Karen hills, extending from the valley of the Irrawaddy into China far beyond the Salween gorge, form a continuous barrier and boundary, and tail off into a narrow range which forms the eastern watershed of the Salween and separates Tenasserim from Siam.
Above the sea, and in the eastern Kachin hills, which run northwards from the state of Meng Mit to join the high range dividing the basins of the Irrawaddy and the Salween, are two peaks, Sabu and Worang, which rise to a height of 11,200 ft.
Of the rivers of Burma the Irrawaddy is the most important.
From its junction with the Irrawaddy at Pakokku.
It is a swift clear river, fed in its upper reaches by numerous mountain streams. The Mogaung river, rising in the watershed which divides the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin drainages, flows south and south-east for 180 m.
Before it joins the Irrawaddy, and is navigable for steamers as far as Kamaing for about four months in the year.
South of Thayetmyo, where arms of the Arakan Yomas approach the river and almost meet that spur of the Pegu Yomas which formed till 1886 the northern boundary of British Burma, the valley of the Irrawaddy opens out again, and at Yegin Mingyi near Myanaung the influence of the tide is first felt, and the delta may be said to begin.
The so-called rivers of the delta, the Ngawun, Pyamalaw, Panmawaddy, Pyinzalu and Pantanaw, are simply the larger mouths of the Irrawaddy, and the whole country towards the sea is a close network of creeks where there are few or no roads and boats take the place of carts for every purpose.
It is in all probability actually longer than the Irrawaddy, but it is not to be compared to that river in importance.
In the heart of the delta numerous large lakes or marshes abounding in fish are formed by the overflow of the Irrawaddy river during the rainy season, but these either assume very diminutive proportions or disappear altogether in the dry season.
In the Arakan and Tenasserim divisions to an average of 90 in Rangoon and the adjoining portion of the Irrawaddy 'delta.
There is an axial zone of Cretaceous and Lower Eocene, and this is flanked on each side by the Upper Eocene and the Miocene, while the valley of the Irrawaddy is occupied chiefly by the Pliocene.
He retained all the valley of the Irrawaddy, down to the sea at Rangoon.
Stretching south-eastwards from the delta of the Irrawaddy, a confused succession of little explored ranges separates the Burmese division of Tenasserim from the native kingdom of Siam.
The rainfall in the lower part of the Irrawaddy valley, viz.
To the east of the Irrawaddy, which bisects the district, it is low-lying and marshy.
It is the limit of navigation on the Irrawaddy, and the terminus of the railway from Rangoon and Sagaing.
The bay receives many large rivers, of which the most important are the Ganges and Brahmaputra on the north, the Irrawaddy on the east, and the Mahanadi, Godavari, Kistna and Cauvery on the west.
The Bay of Martaban receives the rivers Irrawaddy and Salween.
HENZADA, a district of Lower Burma, formerly in the Pegu, but now in the Irrawaddy division.
It stretches from north to south in one vast plain, forming the valley of the Irrawaddy, and is divided by that river into two nearly equal portions.
Numerous torrents pour down from the two boundary ranges, and unite in the plains to form large streams, which fall into the chief streams of the district, which are the Irrawaddy, Hlaing and Bassein, all of them branches of the Irrawaddy.
The steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company call at Henzada and Myan-aung.