To the entrance to Iroquois Park (670 acres) on a wooded hill.
In 1617 the Dutch negotiated with the Iroquois a treaty of peace and alliance.
Samuel de Champlain, as governor of Quebec, entered what is now Vermont in July 1609 in an expedition against the Iroquois, and thus laid the basis for the French claim.
In 1696 Frontenac decided to take the field against the Iroquois, although at this time he was seventy-six years of age.
His father, James Clinton (1736-1812), served as a captain of provincial troops in the French and Indian War, and as a brigadier-general in the American army in the War of Independence, taking part in Montgomery's attack upon Quebec in 1775, unsuccessfully resisting at Fort Montgomery, along the Hudson, in 1777 the advance of Sir Henry Clinton, accompanying General John Sullivan in 177 9 in his expedition against the Iroquois in western New York, and in 1781 taking part in the siege of Yorktown, Virginia.
P Y groups: - Eskimo, on Arctic shores; Dene (Tinneh), in north-western Canada; Algonquin-Iroquois, Canada and eastern United States; Sioux, plains of the west; Muskhogee, Gulf States; Tlinkit-Haida, North Pacific coast; Salish-Chinook, Fraser-Columbia coasts and basins; Shoshoni, interior basin; California-Oregon, mixed tribes; Pueblo province, southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Nahuatla-Maya, southern Mexico and Central America; Chibcha-Kechua, the Cordilleras of South America; Carib-Arawak, about Caribbean Sea; Tupi-Guarani, Amazon drainage; Araucanian, Pampas; Patagonian, peninsula; Fuegian, Magellan Strait.
This rested on the fear of the Iroquois for the French and their hope of protection from the English.
The tortoise from which all things sprang, in a myth of the Satapatha-Brahmana, reminds us of the Iroquois turtle.
A war with the Tuscarora Indians, in 1711-1713, resulted in the defeat of the Indians and the removal of the greater part of the tribe to New York, where they became the sixth nation of the Iroquois confederacy.
It was due to his influence that the Iroquois refused to join Pontiac in his conspiracy, and he was instrumental in arranging the treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768.
Algonquin-Iroquois Canada, thanks to the Geological Survey and the Department of Education in Ontario, has revealed old Indian camps, mounds and earthworks along the northern drainage of Lakes Erie and Ontario, and pottery in a curved line from Montreal to Lake of the Woods.
In 1910 the state charitable institutions were as follows: State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Bath; State School for the Blind, Batavia; the Thomas Indian School, Iroquois; State Woman's Relief Corps Home, Oxford; State Hospital for the care of Crippled and Deformed Children, West Haverstraw; Syracuse State Institution for Feeble-Minded Children, Syracuse; State Hospital for the treatment of Incipient Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Ray Brook; Craig Colony for Epileptics, Sonyea; State Custodial Asylum for Feeble-Minded Women, Newark; Rome State Custodial Asylum for Unteachable Idiots, Rome; State Agricultural and Industrial School, Industry; State Training School for Girls, Hudson; Western House of Refuge, Albion; New York State Reformatory for Women, Bedford; the State Training School for Boys; and Letchworth Village, a custodial asylum for epileptics and feeble-minded.
In July of that year Samuel de Champlain discovered the lake which bears his name and on its shores led his Algonquian Indian allies against the Iroquois, thus provoking against his countrymen the hostility of a people who for years were to hold the balance of power between the English and the French in America.
He conceived that a vast trade with the Iroquois for furs might be established; his report aroused great interest in Holland; and the United Netherlands, whose independence had been acknowledged in the spring, claimed the newly discovered country.
A treaty of alliance with the Mohawks and Senecas procured for the English the same friendly relations with the Iroquois that the Dutch had enjoyed.
The western boundary of the province was not definitely extended beyond the Hudson, Dongan laid the basis of New York's claim to the western lands of the Iroquois by a new covenant with them in which they recognized the English as their protectors, and throughout his administration he was busy neutralizing French influence among the Iroquois and in diverting the fur trade of the north-west from the St Lawrence to Albany.
Open hostilities were interrupted for a few years by the Peace of Ryswick and for a longer period by the Peace of Utrecht (1713), but French priests continued to dwell among the Iroquois, teaching them and distributing presents, and of the success of this diplomacy the English were ever in danger.
Pursuing the same wise policy he established a trading post at Oswego in 1722 and fortified it in 1727, and thereby placed the Iroquois in the desirable position of middlemen in a profitable fur trade with the " Far Indians."
This body, consisting of twenty-five members and representing seven colonies, met in June 1754, and, besides negotiating successfully with the Iroquois, it adopted, with some modifications, a plan of colonial union prepared by Benjamin Franklin; the plan was not approved, however, either by the home government or by any of the colonies.
In 1779 Sullivan, with about 4000 men, defeated the Iroquois and their Loyalist allies at Newtown (now Elmira), New York, on the 29th of August, burned their villages, and destroyed their orchards and crops.
In 1763 the Kentucky country was claimed by the Cherokees as a part of their hunting grounds, by the Six Nations (Iroquois) as a part of their western conquests, and by Virginia as a part of the territory granted to her by her charter of 1609, although it was actually inhabited only by a few Chickasaws near the Mississippi river and by a small tribe of Shawnees in the north, opposite what is now Portsmouth, Ohio.
London, for example, is built on the old shore of Lake Warren, the highest of the extinct lakes; and St Catharines, Hamilton and Toronto are on the old shore of Lake Iroquois, the lowest.
He composed a considerable, quantity of poetry and several minor prose works, especially Notes on the Iroquois (1846); Scenes and Adventures in the Ozark Mountains (1853).
That Lafitau, a Jesuit missionary in North America, while inclined to take a mystical view of the secrets concealed by Iroquois myths, had also pointed out the savage element surviving in Greek mythology.5 Recent Mythological Systems. - Up to a very recent date students of mythology were hampered by orthodox traditions, and still more by ignorance of the ancient languages and of the natural history of man.
But myths precisely similar in irrational and repulsive character, even in minute details, to those of the Aryan races, exist among Australians, South Sea Islanders, Eskimo, Bushmen in Africa, among Solomon Islanders, Iroquois, and so forth.
They make good or bad seasons, and control the vast animals who, among ancient Persians and Aryans of India, as among Zulus and Iroquois, are supposed to grant or withhold the rain, and to thunder with their enormous wings in the region of the clouds.
Zeus or Hera throws Hephaestus or Ate out of heaven, as in the Iroquois myth of the tossing from heaven of Ataentsic. There is, as usual, no agreement as to the etymology of the name of Hephaestus.
In the Iroquois myth (Lafitau, Mc urs des sauvages, 1724), a heavenly woman was tossed out of heaven, and fell on a turtle, which developed into the world.
We have the theory that earth grew, as in the Iroquois story of the turtle, from a being named Uttanapad (Muir v.
The defences had been strengthened, a fort was built at Cataraqui (now Kingston), Ontario, bearing the governor's name, and conditions of peace had been fairly maintained between the Iroquois on the one hand and the French and their allies, the Ottawas and the Hurons, on the other.
The Iroquois sacrifice of the white dog bore in later times the character of a scapegoat festival; but it is doubtful how far this was an original feature.
In 1701, New York, seeking another claim, obtained from the Iroquois a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744 About 1730 English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia began to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under Celeron de Bienville took formal possession of the upper Ohio Valley by planting leaden plates at the mouths of the principal streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II.
From this time the town, on account of its favourable commercial and strategic position at the gateway of the Iroquois country and at the head of navigation on the Hudson river, was for a century and a half one of the most important places in the colonies.
In June 1754, in pursuance of a recommendation of the Lords of Trade, a convention of representatives of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland met here for the purpose of confirming and establishing a closer league of friendship with the Iroquois and of arranging for a permanent union of the colonies.
The Iroquois are in advance of the Algonkins; their creator-hero has no touch of the animal in him.
Or skin wigwams, the Pawnee earth lodge, the Iroquois them into shape with bone tools.
The Algonquin-Iroquois took up the journey at Bear Lake and its tributaries, and by means of paddling and portages traversed the area of middle and eastern Canada, including the entire St Lawrence drainage.
In 1675 Andros established at Albany a commission for Indian affairs which long rendered important service in preserving the English-Iroquois alliance.
But it was left alone to protect its own frontier against the French, and while the assembly was wrangling with Governor Clinton for the control of expenditures the French and their Indians were burning farm houses, attacking Saratoga (November r6, 1745), and greatly endangering the English-Iroquois alliance.
Largely to secure the co-operation of the Iroquois the home government itself now called to meet at Albany (q.v.) the most important assembly of colonial deputies that had yet gathered.
Sir William Johnson died in 1774, but under his influence and that of his son, Sir John Johnson, and his nephew Guy Johnson, the Mohawks and other Iroquois Indians had become firmly attached to the British side and threatened the western frontier.
In retaliation a punitive expedition under Generals John Sullivan and James Clinton in 1779 destroyed the Iroquois towns, and dealt the Indian confederacy a blow from which it never recovered.
The Iroquois naturally turned first to the Dutch and then to the English for allies.
Of the Merrimac river, or to the northward of any and every part thereof," and extending west to the South Sea or Pacific Ocean, under the name of Massachusetts; to John Mason alone, on the 7th of November 1629, a grant of that portion of the " Province of Maine " which lay between the Merrimac and the Piscataqua, under the name of New Hampshire; to the Laconia Company, consisting of Gorges, Mason and associates, on the 17th of November 1629, a grant of an extensive territory (which was called Laconia) around the Lake of the Iroquois (Lake Champlain) together with one thousand acres at some place to be selected along the sea coast; to Edward Hilton, on the 12th of March 1630, the grant of a tract on and about the lower part of Dover Neck; to the Laconia Company, in November 1631, a grant of a tract on both sides of the Piscataqua river near its mouth, known as the Pescataway grant; and finally to John Mason, on the 22nd of April 1635, a short time before the Council surrendered its charter, a grant of the region between the Salem river on the south and the Piscataqua and Salmon Falls rivers on the north-east and extending 60 m.
The Laconia Company received - its first grant under the erroneous impression that the Piscataqua river had its source in or near Lake Champlain, and its principal object was to establish an extensive fur trade with the Iroquois Indians.
During the summer General John Sullivan marched with a large force against the Indians (all the Iroquois tribes except the Oneidas and part of the Tuscaroras siding with the British during the war) and against the Loyalists of western New York, who had been committing great depredations along the frontier; and on the 29th of August he inflicted a crushing defeat upon them at Newtown, on the site of the present Elmira.
Among the social clubs the Buffalo, the University, the Park, the Saturn and the Country clubs, and among the hotels the Iroquois, Lafayette, Niagara and Genesee, may be especially mentioned.
These strands and belts were the only visible records of the Iroquois, but they required the trained interpreters who could draw from their strings and figures the acts and intentions locked up in their remembrance" (Major Rogers, Account of North America, London, 1765).
Indra, the rain-god, slew with a thunderbolt AM or Vitra, who kept back the waters (Oldham, 32 sqq.); the thunder-god of the Iroquois killed the subterranean serpent which fed on human flesh (Hartland iii.
In the same way plants, among the Iroquois, were made of pieces knocked off Chokanipok in his fight with Manabozho.
The Iroquois were assuming a threatening attitude towards the inhabitants, and Frontenac's successor, La Barre, was quite incapable of leading an army against such cunning foes.
Missionaries to the Iroquois themselves met with a similar fate and the missions failed.
He knew how to control the ferocious Iroquois, who had cut off France from access to Lake Ontario; to check them he had built a fort where now stands the city of Kingston.
After Frontenac the Iroquois, though still hostile to France, are formidable no more, and the struggle for the continent is frankly between the English and the French.
The danger from the Iroquois on Lake Ontario had long cut her off from the most direct access to the West, and from the occupation of the Ohio valley leading to the Mississippi, but now free from this savage scourge she could go where she would.
An important treaty with the Iroquois Indians was negotiated here by the governor of Pennsylvania and by commissioners from Maryland and Virginia in June 1744.
At the end of a year La Barre was replaced by the marquis de Denonville, a man of ability and courage, who, though he showed some vigour in marching against the western Iroquois tribes, angered rather than intimidated them, and the massacre of Lachine (5th of August 1689) must be regarded as one of the unhappy results of his administration.
Within its limits from the upper Hudson westward to the Genesee river was the home of that powerful confederacy of Indian tribes, the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas, known to the French as the Iroquois and to the English as the Five (later Six) Nations.
But their colonies were democracies, disunited because each was pursuing its own special interests, while the French were united under despotic leadership. Frontenac attacked the Iroquois mercilessly in 1696 and forced these proud savages to sue for peace.