Alloy steels and cast irons are those which owe their properties chiefly to the presence of one or more elements other than carbon.
Of great scientific interest in this connexion is the discovery of small diamonds in certain meteorites, both stones and irons; for example, in the stone which fell at Novo-Urei in Penza, Russia, in 1886, in a stone found at Carcote in Chile, and in the iron found at Canon Diablo in Arizona.
The veins of the leaves are next impressed by means of a die, and the petals are given their natural rounded forms by goffering irons of various shapes.
The sloping sides of the conical bottom can be freed from the coating of scum which forms upon them every two or three hours by two rotatory scrapers, formed of L-irons, which can be slowly turned by an attendant by means of a central shaft provided with a suitable handle.
The graphite found in granite and in veins in gneiss, as well as that contained in meteoric irons, cannot have had such an origin.
* The term " Alloy Cast Irons " is not actually in frequent use, not because of any question as to its fitness or meaning, but because the need of such a generic term rarely arises in the industry.
But beyond this are the very useful, because very fusible, cast irons with from 3 to 4% of carbon, the embrittling effect of which is much lessened by its being in the state of graphite.
Looking at the matter in a broad way, in all these carbon-iron alloys, both steel and cast irons, part of the carbon may be dissolved in the iron, usually as austenite, e.g.
That it cannot be hammered from one shape into another, yet its degree of brittleness differs as that of soapstone does from that of glass, so that there are the intensely hard and brittle cast irons, and the less brittle ones, softer and unhurt by a shock which would shiver the former.
Next let us imagine that, in a series of cast irons all containing 4% of carbon, the graphite of the initial skeleton changes gradually into cementite and thereby becomes part of the matrix, a change which of course has two aspects, first, a gradual thinning of the graphite skeleton and a decrease of its continuity, and second, a gradual introduction of cementite into the originally pure ferrite matrix.
As, in succeeding members of this same series of cast irons, more of the graphite of the initial skeleton changes into cementite and thereby becomes part of the metallic matrix, so the graphite skeleton becomes progressively thinner and more discontinuous, and the matrix richer in cementite and hence in carbon and hence equivalent first to higher and higher carbon steel, such as tool steel of I carbon, file steel of 1.50%, wire-die steel of 2% carbon and then to white cast iron, which consists essentially of much cementite with little ferrite.
Second, though the brittleness should be lessened somewhat by the decrease in the extent to which the continuity of the strong matrix is broken up by the graphite skeleton, yet this effect is outweighed greatly by that of the rapid substitution in the matrix of the brittle cementite for the' very ductile copper-like ferrite, so that the brittleness increases continuously (RS), from that of the very grey graphitic cast irons, which, like that of soapstone, is so slight that the metal can endure severe shock and even indentation without breaking, to that of the pure white cast iron which is about as brittle as porcelain.
Hence, as with the progressive transfer of the carbon from the graphitic to the cementite state in our imaginary series of cast irons, the combined carbon present in the matrix increases, so does the tensile strength of the mass as a whole for two reasons; first, because the strength of the matrix itself is increasing (DE), and second, because the discontinuity is decreasing with the decreasing proportion of graphite.
Graphitic carbon in cubic form (cliftonite) has also been found in certain meteoric " irons," for example in those from Magura in Szepes county, Hungary, and Youndegin near York in Western Australia.
Nails, rivets, chains, fire-irons, locks and safes are produced.
But the most remarkable of the persons with whom at this time Johnson consorted was Richard Savage, an earl's son, a shoemaker's apprentice, who had seen life in all its forms, who had feasted among blue ribands in St James's Square, and had lain with fifty pounds weight of irons on his legs in the condemned ward of Newgate.
Irons were strictly forbidden except in cases of "urgent and absolute necessity," and it was ruled that every prisoner should have a bed to himself - if possible a separate cell, the last being the first formal statement of a principle upon which all future prison discipline was to be based.
In June 1547 St Andrews yielded to the French fleet, and the prisoners, including Knox, were thrown into the galleys on the Loire, to remain in irons and under the lash for at least nineteen months.
Chalybeate waters, pools in marshes near irons one, &c., abound in bacteria,, some of which belong to the remarkable genera Crenothrix, Cladothrix and Leptothrix, and contain ferric oxide, i.e.
Irons, Study in Psychology of Ethics (1903); G.
Miss Sullivan sat beside me at my lessons, spelling into my hand whatever Mr. Irons said, and looking up new words for me.
2) 100.0 The constitution and properties of such a series of cast irons, all containing 4% of carbon but with that carbon shifting pro o v,,3 950 R portion of ferrite and cementite respectively in the matrix, DEF, KS and TU reproduced from fig.
His flesh is said to have been torn with woolcombers' irons before he was beheaded, and this seems to be the only reason why he has always been regarded as the patron saint of woolcombers.
It consists of a pair of tubular girders with solid or plate sides stiffened by angle irons, one line of rails passing through each tube.
Fremont is situated in a good agricultural region; oil and natural gas abound in the vicinity; and the city has various manufactures, including boilers, electro-carbons, cutlery, bricks, agricultural implements, stoves and ranges, safety razors, carriage irons, sash, doors, blinds, furniture, beet sugar, canned vegetables, malt extract, garters and suspenders.