Long.), separating the government of Irkutsk from that of Transbaikalia, and has a length of 386 m.
Above the level of the Angara at Irkutsk (Zapiski Russ.
Attempts are being made to render the Angara navigable below Irkutsk down to the Yenisei.
Surveys in Asiatic Russia are conducted by the topographical departments organized at Orenburg, Tashkent, Omsk, Irkutsk and Tiflis.
They are named the Usinsk Mountains in West Sayan and the Tunka Alps in East Sayan; the latter, pierced by the Angara at Irkutsk, are in all probability continued north-east in the Baikal Mountains, which stretch from Irkutsk to Olkhon Island and the Svyatoi Nos peninsula of Lake Baikal, thus dividing the lake into two parts.?
Iron-ores are known;at several places on the outskirts of the alpine tracts (as about Irkutsk), as well as in the Selenginsk region and in the Altai.
Coal occurs in many Jurassic fresh-water;basins, namely, on the outskirts of the Altai, in south Yeniseisk, about Irkutsk, in the Nerchinsk district, at many places in the Maritime province, and on the island of Sakhalin.
Rock-salt occurs at several places on the Lena and in Transbaikalia, and salt-springs are numerous - those of Ust-kutsk on the Lena and of Usolie near Irkutsk being the most noteworthy.
Are not uncommon at Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk and Nerchinsk; even in the warmer southern regions of West Siberia and of the Amur the average winter temperature is 2.4° F.
And - 90° respectively; the minimum at Krasnoyarsk is - 67° F., at Irkutsk - 51°, at Omsk - 56°, and at Tobolsk - 58°58° F.
The summer isotherm of 68° F., which in Europe passes through Cracow and Kaluga, traverses Omsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, whence it turns north to Yakutsk, and then south again to Vladivostok.
That of - 4° F., which crosses Novaya Zemlya in Europe, passes through Tobolsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, and touches 45° N.
In East Siberia the Buriats occupy the Selenga and the Uda, parts of Nerchinsk, and the steppes between Irkutsk and the upper Lena, as also the Baikal Mountains and the island of Orkhon; they support themselves chiefly by live-stock breeding, but some, especially in Irkutsk, are agriculturists.
At Irkutsk and in the valley of the Irkut the admixture of Tungus and Buriat blood is obvious, and still more in the Nerchinsk district and among the Transbaikal Cossacks settled on the Argun.
There are seventeen towns with a population of 10,000 or more, namely, Tomsk (63,533 in 1900) and Irkutsk (49,106) - the capitals of West and East Siberia respectively; Blagovyeshchensk (37,368), Vladivostok (38,0co).
The southern parts of Tobolsk, nearly all the government of Tomsk (exclusive of the Narym region), southern Yeniseisk and southern Irkutsk, have in an average year a surplus of grain varying from 35 to 40% of the total crop, but in bad years the crop falls short of the actual needs of the population.
The forest area under supervision is about 30,000,000 acres (in Tobolsk, Tomsk, Yeniseisk and Irkutsk), out of a total area of forest land of 63,000,000 acres.
As an independent pursuit, live-stock breeding is carried on by the Russians in eastern Transbaikalia, by the Yakuts in the province of Yakutsk, and by the Buriats in Irkutsk and Trans- Lave baikalia, but elsewhere it is secondary to agriculture.
The fisheries on Lake Baikal supply cheap food (the omul) to the poorer classes of Irkutsk and Transbaikalia.
From Tyumen the road proceeds to Omsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, sending off from Kolyvan a branch south to Barnaul in the Altai and to Turkestan.
From Irkutsk it proceeds to Transbaikalia, Lake Baikal being crossed either by steamer or (when frozen) on sledges, in either case from Listvinichnoe to Misovaya.
Thence the line was continued across the prairies to Kurgan and Omsk, and from there it followed the great Siberian highway to Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk, and on round Lake Baikal to Chita and Stryetensk on the Shilka.
From 1864 to 1866 he taught geography at the military school at Warsaw, and in 1867 he was admitted to the general staff and sent to Irkutsk, where he started to explore the highlands on the banks of the Usuri, the great southern tributary of the Amur.
1879), a priest of Irkutsk, afterwards Archbishop Innocent, began a career of evangelistic activity which has few parallels.
It includes the basins of the Oldoi, Zeya and Bureya, left-bank tributaries of the river Amur, and has the governments of Transbaikalia on the W., Irkutsk and Yakutsk on the N., the Maritime province on the E., and Manchuria on the S.
Other localities which have yielded the mineral in large amount are the Alibert mine in Irkutsk, Siberia and the Borrowdale mine in Cumberland.
The Siberian provinces of Tomsk, Yeniseisk, Irkutsk and Transbaikalia.
The Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the exploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become widely known.
Similar Materials for the Altai region, published at St Petersburg by the Cabinet of the emperor, and for Irkutsk and Yeniseisk (12 fasc., Irkutsk, 1889-1893); Materials for Transbaikalia (16 vols., St Petersburg, 1898), summed up in Transbaikalia, by N.