A little south of Samarra the stony plateau of Mesopotamia ends, and the alluvial plain of Irak, ancient Babylonia, begins.
It was from a remote period, antedating certainly 3000 B.C., the highway of empire and of commerce between east and west, more specifically between Babylonia or Irak and Syria, and numerous empires, peoples and civilizations have left their records on its shores.
Firdousi, to avoid further troubles, departed for Ahwaz, a province of the Persian Irak, and dedicated his Yusuf and Zuleikha to the governor of that district.
This is one of four similar Jewish shrines in Irak; the others being the tomb of Ezra on the Shatt el-Arab near Korna, the tomb of Ezekiel in the village of Kefil near Kufa, and the well of Daniel near Hillah.
KHUNSAR, a town of Persia, sometimes belonging to the province of Isfahan, at others to Irak, 9 6 m.
Those utilized were the Kaoshan (the "Hindu Kush" pass par excellence), 14,340 ft.; the Chahardar (13,900 ft.), which is a link in one of the amir of Afghanistan's high roads to Turkestan; and the Shibar (9800 ft.), which is merely a diversion into the upper Ghorband of that group of passes between Bamian and the Kabul plains which are represented by the Irak, Hajigak, Unai, &c. About this point it is geographically correct to place the southern extremity of the Hindu Kush, for here commences the Koh-i-Baba system into which the Hindu Kush is merged.
Under the second caliph Omar (634-644) the Persians were defeated at Kadesiya (Kadessia), and Irak was completely subdued and the new cities of Kuf a and Basra were ',For the general history of the succeeding period see Caliphate; Egypt: History, §" Mahommedan."
To this end he expelled the Christians from Nejran and gave them lands in Syria and Irak, where they were allowed to live in peace on payment of tribute.
In 985 they were completely defeated in Irak, and soon after lost control of the pilgrimages.
Jarir of another branch of the Bani Tamim lived in Irak and courted the favour of Hajjaj, its governor.
With regard to the history of Irak in particular he was deemed to have the best information, and for this subject he is Tabari's chief source, just as Madaini, a younger contemporary of Wagidi, is followed by preference in all that relates to Khorasan.
In Irak the two towns of Basra and Kufa produced two rival schools of philologists.
1 000, speaks of them as comprising the bulk of the population of Syria, Irak and Khorasan, and as superior to the orthodox in intellectual ability.
See Eastern Persian Irak, R.
He was a scholar of the traditionalist Bukhari, and in his search for traditions travelled through Khorasan, Irak and Hejaz.
Al-Walid, whom Abu Bekr sent in all haste from Irak to Syria, he defeated the imperial troops, commanded by Theodorus, the brother of Heraclius, not far from Ramleh in Palestine, on the 31st of July 634.
The city possesses five gates, two on the northern face, the Kutab-chak near the north-east angle of the wall, and the Malik at the re-entering angle of the Ark-i-nao; and three others in the centres of the remaining faces, the Irak gate on the west, the Kandahar gate on the south and the Kushk gate on the east face.
The Irak of Persia was overcome by Khalid in a single campaign, and there was also a successful expedition into Syria.
HIRA, the capital of an Arabian kingdom, founded in the 2nd century A.D., on the western edge of Irak, was situated at 32° N., 44° 20' E., about 4 m.
638 as one of the two capitals of the new territory of Irak, the whole country being divided into the sawads, or districts, of Basra and Kufa.
Sometimes it is under the governor-general of the Isfahan province, at others it forms part of the province of Irak, and at times, as in 1906, is under a governor appointed from Teheran.
After this victory the three princes Toghrul Beg, Chakir Beg and Ibrahim Niyal separated in different directions and conquered the Mahommedan provinces east of the Tigris; the last named, after conquering Hamadan and the province of Jebel (Irak i Ajami), penetrated as early as 1048, with fresh Ghuzz troops, into Armenia and reached Manzikert, Erzerutn and Trebizond.
After the death of Mahommed, Sinjar became the real head of the family, though Irak acknowledged Mahmud, the son of Mahommed.
Thus there originated a separate dynasty of Irak with its capital at Hamadan (Ecbatana); but Sinjar during his long reign often interfered in the affairs of the new dynasty, and every occupant of the throne had to acknowledge his supremacy.
Kilij Arslan took possession of Mosul in 1107, and declared himself independent of the Seljuks of Irak; but in the same year he was drowned in the Khaboras through the treachery of his own amirs, and the dynasty seemed again destined to decay, as his sons were in the power of his enemies.
The force, however, which he sent with him for the purpose of reconquering Irak was quite insufficient for the purpose, and Mostansir was defeated and slain.
For a time Malik al-Na~ir was recognized as suzerain in north Africa, the Arabian Irak, and Asia Minor, but he was unable to make any permanent conquests in any of these countries.
SAVAH, a small province of central Persia, north of Irak and south-west of Teheran ., comprising the districts of Savah, Khalejistan (inhabited by the Turkish Khalej tribe), Zerend and Karaghan.
From Bamian it passes over the central mountain chain to Kabul either by the well-known passes of Irak (marking the water-divide of the Koh-i-Baba) and of Unai (marking the summit of the Sanglakh, a branch of the Hindu Kush), or else, turning eastwards, it crosses into the Ghorband valley by the Shibar, a pass which is considerably lower than the Irak and is very seldom snowbound.
Meanwhile the war was also carried on against the Persians in Irak, unsuccessfully at first, until the tide turned at the battle of Kadisiya (Kadessia, Qadisiya) (end of 637).
In 639 the armies of Syria and Irak were face to face in Mesopotamia.
Every position of influence and emolument was assigned to them; they themselves boastingly called the important province of Irak the garden of Koreish.
The movement was most energetic in Irak and in Egypt.
In the following year (656) the leaders of the rebels came once more from Egypt and Irak to Medina with a more numerous following; and the caliph again tried the plan of making promises which he did not intend to keep. But the rebels caught him in a flagrant breach of his word, 4 and now demanded his abdication, besieging him in his own house, where he was defended by a few faithful subjects.
But soon these two, along with Ayesha, the mother of the faithful, who had an old grudge against Ali, succeeded in making their escape to Irak, where at Basra they raised the standard of rebellion.
The population of Irak was already mixed up with Persian elements; it fluctuated greatly, and was largely composed of fresh immigrants.
In the great revolt of the Arabic tribes after the death of Mahomet, and in the invasion of Irak and Syria by the Moslems, the principal generals belonged to them.
The largest and strongest group of these were the Persians, who, before the conquest of Irak by the Moslems, were the ruling class of that country, so that Persian was the dominant language.
When, ten weeks before the murder, some hundreds of men came to Medina from Egypt and Irak, pretending that they were on their pilgrimage to Mecca, but wanted to bring before the caliph their complaints against his vicegerents, nobody could have the slightest suspicion that the life of the caliph was in danger; indeed it was only during 1 Ma'ad is in the genealogical system the father of the Moelar and the Rab`ia tribes.
Immediately after the submission of Irak, he had denounced the existing treaty, and as early as 662 had sent his troops against the Alans and the Greeks.
The Arabic historians are still absorbed by the events in Irak and Khorasan.
For this purpose Irak had to furnish the largest contingent.
Ziyad governed Irak with the greatest vigour, but as long as discontent did not issue in action, he let men alone.
The people of Irak had never been accustomed to discipline, and no improvement had taken place during the troubles of the last years.
This victory opened the gates of Kufa to Abdalmalik, and all Irak received him with acclamation.
But the storms in Irak and Mesopotamia had not yet altogether subsided.
When Abdalmalik, after a stay of forty days, returned from Irak to Syria, he left two Omayyad princes as his vicegerents in Kuf a and Basra.
Abdalmalik in alarm made Hajjaj governor of Irak with the most extensive powers.
Mohallab, reinforced by the army of Irak, at last succeeded, after a struggle of eighteen months, in subjugating the Kharijites and their caliph Qatara b.
In the east the realm of Islam had been very much extended under the reign of Moawiya, when Ziyad was governor of Irak and Khorasan.
The soldiers of Irak, who did not love the governor, and disliked the prospect of a long and difficult war far from home, eagerly accepted the proposition of returning to Irak, and even proclaimed the dethronement of Abdalmalik, in favour of Ibn Ash`ath.
As soon as the expedition to Irak against Mus`ab had terminated, the holy war against the Greeks was renewed.
But the reputation of Omar attracted to the two holy cities a great number of the inhabitants of Irak, who had been deeply involved in the rebellion of Ibn Ash`ath.
These two prefects compelled the refugees to return to Irak, where many of them were severely treated and even put to death by Hajjaj.
Abbas the names of the chiefs of the Shia in Irak and Khorasan, and disclosed his way of corresponding with them.
If one of these adopted Islam, Omar permitted him to leave his place, which had been strictly forbidden by I.Iajjaj in Irak and the eastern provinces, because by it many hands were withdrawn from the tilling of the ground, and those who remained were unable to pay the allotted amount.
Mohallab had returned to Irak, after the conquest of Jorjan, when Suleiman was still alive.
Who afterwards reigned as Walid II., was niece to the celebrated Hajjaj, whose family had been ill-treated by the son of Mohallab, when he was governor of Irak under Suleiman.
Maslama was rewarded with the governorship of Irak and Khorasan, but was soon replaced by Omar b.