The almost total absence from Homer not only of "Dorians " but of " Ionians " and even of " Hellenes "leads to the conclusion that the diagrammatic genealogy of the " sons of Hellen " is of post-Homeric date; and that it originated as an attempt to classify the Doric, Ionic and Aeolic groups of Hellenic settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor, for here alone do the three names correspond to territorial, linguistic and political divisions.
The statement of Herodotus is illustrated both by Attic vase-paintings and also by the series of archaic female statues from the Acropolis of Athens, which (with the exception of one clothed in the Doric irk-Nos) wear the Ionic chiton, together with an outer garment, sometimes laid over both shoulders like a cloak (Greek Art,, fig.
All this points on the one hand to an intrusion of Doric dialect into an Arcadian-and-Ionic-speaking area; on the other hand to a subsequent expansion of Aeolic over the north-eastern edge of an area which once was Dorian..
Like the temple at Phigalia, it combined the forms of all three orders - Doric, Ionic and Corinthian.
12.53), comparing these writers with the old Ionic logographers, says that they paid no attention to ornament, and considered the only merits of a writer to be intelligibility and conciseness.
Although of Dorian stock, he wrote in the Ionic dialect, like all the physiologi (physical philosophers).
Wide, built of granite and white limestone in the Italian Renaissance style, with 70 large Ionic columns, and a dome 205 ft.
At the other end of the great hall is a similar portico facing outwards; and between this and the doors the hall is divided into three aisles by rows of Ionic columns.
The four Ionic tribes at Athens seem to have answered very closely to the three patrician tribes at Rome; but the Athenian demos grew up in a different way from the Roman plebs.
To appreciate the significance of the doctrines of Heraclitus, it must be borne in mind that to Greek philosophy the sharp distinction between subject and object which pervades modern thought was foreign, a consideration which suggests the conclusion that, while it is a great mistake to reckon Heraclitus with the materialistic cosmologists of the Ionic schools, it is, on the other hand, going too far to treat his theory, with Hegel and Lassalle, as one of pure Panlogism.
The form C which it takes in the alphabets of Naxos, Delos and other Ionic islands at the same period is difficult to explain.
The present structure, which dates from 1347, has its Gothic character disguised by a classical facade with Ionic pillars and much tasteless modernization.
It consisted of a large open rectangular space surrounded by an Ionic colonnade into which opened a number of shops or storehouses.
The eastern gate was adorned with four Ionic columns on the outside and two on the inside, the.
For the symbol which was used at Ephesus and other places in Asia Minor and elsewhere for the sound represented by -aa- in Ionic Greek, by -TT- in Attic, see ALPHABET.
Thus, the ratio of the losses at the two ends is two to one - the same as the ratio of the assumed ionic velocities.
There is reason to believe that in certain cases such complex ions do exist, and interfere with the results of the differing ionic velocities.
Now Hittorf's transport number, in the case of simple salts in moderately dilute solution, gives us the ratio between the two ionic velocities.
The verification of Kohlrausch's theory of ionic velocity verifies also the view of electrolysis which regards the electric current as due to streams of ions moving in opposite directions through the liquid and carrying their opposite electric charges with them.
Let x be the number of molecules which dissociate per second when the number of undissociated molecules in unit volume is unity, then in a dilute solution where the molecules do not interfere with each other, xp is the number when the concentration is p. Recombination can only occur when two ions meet, and since the frequency with which this will happen is, in dilute solution, proportional to the square of the ionic concentration, we shall get for the number of molecules re-formed in one second ye where q is the number of dissociated molecules in one cubic centimetre.
The influence of temperature on the conductivity of solutions depends on (I) the ionization, and (2) the frictional resistance of the liquid to the passage of the ions, the reciprocal of which is called the ionic fluidity.
An application of the theory of ionic velocity due to W.
ERECHTHEUM, a temple (commonly called after Erechtheus, to whom a portion of it was dedicated) on the acropolis at Athens, unique in plan, and in its execution the most refined example of the Ionic order.
The west end was formed by a wall, on which stood four columns between antae; but the main entrance to this western compartment was through a large and very ornate doorway on the north; and a large Ionic portico, consisting of four columns in the front, and one in the return on each side, was placed in front of this door.
But even here it seems impossible to deny some influence coming from the Aegean area, and Scythic beasts are very like certain products of Mycenaean and early Ionic art.
The rise of speculative philosophy in Greece was coincident with the beginning of prose composition, and many of the earliest philosophers wrote in the prose of the Ionic dialect; others, however, and especially the writers of the Greek colonies in Italy and Sicily, expounded their systems in continuous poems composed in the epic hexameter.
The duke of York's Column, Carlton House Terrace (1833), an Ionic pillar, is surmounted by a bronze statue by Sir Richard Westmacott.
The great building in Bloomsbury (1828-1852) with its massive Ionic portico, houses the collections of antiquities, coins, books, manuscripts and drawings, and contains the reading-rooms for the use of readers.
It is a square building with Ionic colonnades and a central dome, like an ancient temple, but curiously unlike a Roman villa.
The Glyptothek, a building by Klenze in the Ionic style, and adorned with several groups and single statues, contains a valuable series of sculptures, extending from Assyrian and Egyptian monuments down to works by Thorwaldsen and other modern masters.
Other extant works of Arrian are: Indica, a description of India in the Ionic dialect, including the voyage of Nearchus, intended as a supplement to the Anabasis; Acies Contra Alanos, a fragment of importance for the knowledge of Roman military affairs; Periplus of the Euxine, an official account written (iii) for the emperor Hadrian; Tactica, attributed by some to Aelianus, who wrote in the reign of Trajan; Cynegeticus, a treatise on the chase, supplementing Xenophon's work on the same subject; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, attributed to him, is by a later compiler.
The agora is of unsymmetrical form; its sides are bordered by porticoes, interrupted by streets, like the primitive agora of Elis as described by Pausanias, and unlike the regular agoras of Ionic type.
SuIdas speaks of him as "Laconian or Milesian"; possibly he visited Miletus in his youth, where he became familiar with the Ionic elegy.
They are mainly elegiac and in the Ionic dialect, written partly in praise of the Spartan constitution an King Theopompus (Ebvoµia), partly to stimulate the Spartan soldiers to deeds of heroism in the field (`T7roOi icacthe title is, however, later than Tyrtaeus).
In 494, when the defeated Ionians were obliged to sue for terms, he was one of the ambassadors to the Persian satrap Artaphernes, whom he persuaded to restore the constitution of the Ionic cities (Diod.
Pausanias asserts that the outer order was Ionic; but excavations have proved that it was Doric. The pedimental groups of the temple represented at the front, the hunt of the Calydonian boar, and, at the back, the battle of Achilles and Telephus.
A small Ionic temple of marble with two caryatids between antae stood on this substructure.
Here too was placed the curious column, with many flutes and an Ionic capital, on which stood the colossal sphinx, dedicated by the Naxians, that has been pieced together and placed in the museum.
The addition of an "Achaean " group, and the inclusion of this and the Ionic group under a single generic name, would naturally follow the recognition of the real kinship of the " Achaean " colonies of Magna Graecia with those of Ionia.
But in proportion as an earlier date has become more probable for Homer, the hypothesis of Ionic origin has become less tenable, and the belief better founded (I) that the poems represent accurately a welldefined phase of culture in prehistoric Greece, and (2) that this " Homeric " or " Achaean " phase was closed by some such general catastrophe as is presumed by the legends.
Arcadia, on the other hand, in the heart of Peloponnese, retained till a late date a quite different dialect, akin to the ancient dialect of Cyprus, and more remotely to Aeolic. This distribution makes it clear (r) that the Doric dialects of Peloponnese represent a superstratum, more recent than the speech of Arcadia; (2) that Laconia and its colonies preserve features alike, -n and -w which are common to southern Doric and Aeolic; (3) that those parts of " Dorian " Greece in which tradition makes the pre-Dorian population " Ionic," and in which the political structure shows that the conquered were less completely subjugated, exhibit the Ionic -a and -ov; (4) that as we go north, similar though more barbaric dialects extend far up the western side of central-northern Greece, and survive also locally in the highlands of south Thessaly; (5) that east of the watershed Aeolic has prevailed over the area which has legends of a Boeotian and Thessalian migration, and replaces Doric in the northern Doris.
After the Achaean cities had combined to destroy the Ionic Siris, and had founded Metapontum as a counterpoise to the Dorian Tarentum, there seems to have been little strife among the Italiotes.