The earliest explicit Greek account of the Ionians is given in the 5th century by Herodotus (i.
Many of the colonists, however, were not Ionians, but refugees from other parts of Greece, between Euboea and Argolis (Hdt.
Besides the sections on Ionians in the general histories of Greece and the references given in G.
(iii.) It is improbable that Athens would have sent twenty vessels to the aid of the Ionians in 498 B.C. if at the time she was at war with Aegina.
Fars, q.v.), the south-western part of Iran (Persia), named from the inhabitants, the Iranian people of the Parsa (Fars); their name was pronounced by the Ionians Persair with change from a to e, and this form has become dominant in Greek and in the modern European languages.
Lastly, Peisistratus carried out the purification of Delos, the sacred island of Apollo of the Ionians; all the tombs were removed from the neighbourhood of the shrine, the abode of the god of light and joy.
A bolder stroke followed in 500, when a force was sent to support the Ionians in revolt against Persia and took part in the sack of Sardis.
Its origin was ascribed to a Carian colony, whose memory was possibly preserved in Epicarus, the earlier name of the city; it was afterwards occupied by Ionians, and appears to have incorporated a body of Phlegyans from Thessaly.
The Ionians in turn succumbed to the Dorians of Argos, who, according to the legend, were led by Deiphontes; and from that time the city continued to preserve its Dorian character.
Joel complains that they were sold to the Grecians (Javan, Ionians).2 It is probable that some Hebrew and Syrian slaves were exported to the Mediterranean coasts from a very early date, and Isa.
In the second and greater work he goes back to the theories and methods of the Ionians and the pre-Socratics generally.
After losing many men the Great King comes back to the place where he crossed the Danube, finds the Ionians still guarding the bridge in spite of the attempts of the Scyths to make them desert, and safely re-enters his own dominions.
The Ionians were naturally averse from prolonged warfare, and in the prosperity which must have followed the final rout of the Persians and the freeing of the Aegean from the pirates (a very important feature in the league's policy) a money contribution was only a trifling burden.
The indolent Ionians had seen the result of secession at Naxos and rebellion at Thasos; the Athenian fleet was perpetually on guard in the Aegean.
DORIANS, a name applied by the Greeks to one of the principal groups of Hellenic peoples, in contradistinction to Ionians and Aeolians.
The last of these attempts resulted in the " Dorian conquest " of the "Achaeans " and " Ionians " of Peloponnese, and in the assignment of Argolis, Laconia and Messenia to the Heracleid leaders, Temenus, Aristodemus and Cresphontes respectively; of Elis to their Aetolian allies; and of the north coast to the remnants of the conquered Achaeans.
The almost total absence from Homer not only of "Dorians " but of " Ionians " and even of " Hellenes "leads to the conclusion that the diagrammatic genealogy of the " sons of Hellen " is of post-Homeric date; and that it originated as an attempt to classify the Doric, Ionic and Aeolic groups of Hellenic settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor, for here alone do the three names correspond to territorial, linguistic and political divisions.
Of 8th-century Ionians describing 12th-century events) with that of historic Greece, by explaining discrepancies (due to Homeric ignorance) as the result of " migrations " in the interval.
Illingworth has said very concisely: " The physical speculations of the Ionians and Atomists rendered a God superfluous, and the metaphysical and logical reasoning of the Eleatics declared Him to be unknowable."
When Aristagoras held a council of the leading Ionians at Miletus, to organize a revolt against the Persian rule, Hecataeus in vain tried to dissuade his countrymen from the undertaking (Herodotus v.
In 494, when the defeated Ionians were obliged to sue for terms, he was one of the ambassadors to the Persian satrap Artaphernes, whom he persuaded to restore the constitution of the Ionic cities (Diod.
Even the presence of Carians and Ionians in the time of Psammetichus I.
In central Euboea were the Curetes and Abantes, who seem to have come from the neighbouring continent by way of the Euripus; of these the Abantes, after being reinforced by Ionians from Attica, rose to great power, and exercised a sort of supremacy over the whole island, so that in Homer the inhabitants generally are called by that name.
Siphnos was said to have been colonized by Ionians from Athens.
Though not in existence before the arrival of the Ionians in Asia, its original founders were largely settlers from Phlius and Cleonae.
Zeller thinks that his ancestors belonged to the Cadmean tribe in Boeotia, who were intermingled with the Ionians of Asia Minor, and thus reconciles the conflicting statements.
Of these the most remarkable is the advice, praised by Herodotus, which he gave to his fellowcountrymen " before Ionia was ruined " - " that the Ionians should constitute one general council in Teos, as the most central of the twelve cities, and that the remaining cities should nevertheless be governed as independent states " (Herod.
74) contains two statements: - (i) the fact that the eclipse did actually take place during a battle between the Medes and the Lydians, that it was a total eclipse (Herodotus calls it a " night battle "), that it caused a cessation of hostilities and led to a lasting peace between the contending nations; (2) that Thales had foretold the eclipse to the Ionians, and fixed the year in which it actually did take place.
This Hesiodic genealogy connects the Achaeans closely with the Ionians, but historically they approach nearer to the Aeolians.
From Athens the island afterwards received a colony of Ionians (Schol.
Libanius) anxious to affiliate themselves to the Attic Ionians - an anxiety which is illustrated by the Athenian types used on the city's coins.
The Delian amphictyony probably reached the height of its splendour early in the 7th century B.C. The Hymn to the Delian Apollo, composed about that time, celebrates the gathering of the Ionians with their wives and children at the shrine of their god on the island of Delos, to worship him with music, dancing and gymnastic contests (vv.
The later misfortunes of the Ionians caused a decline of the festival.
Thus, whereas the Ionians, confounding the unity and the plurality of the universe, had neglected plurality, and the Pythagoreans, contenting themselves with the reduction of the variety of nature to a duality or a series of dualities, had neglected unity, Parmenides, taking a hint from Xenophanes, made the antagonistic doctrines supply one another's deficiencies; for, as Xenophanes in his theological system had recognized at once the unity of God and the plurality of things, so Parmenides in his system of nature recognized at once the rational unity of the Ent and the phenomenal plurality of the Nonent.
Of the Black Sea; Javan is the Ionians, used loosely for the seafaring peoples of the West, including Tarshish (Tartessus in Spain), Kittim (Cyprus), Rodanim 5 (Rhodes).
Thus, at Athens,Apollo Patroos was known as the protector of the Ionians, and the Spartans referred the institutions of Lycurgus to the Delphic oracle.
IaTopia, which was used by the Ionians in the 6th century B.C. for the search for knowledge in the widest sense.
Others attach chief importance to the slaying of Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) by Orestes at Delphi; according to Radermacher (Das Jenseits im Mythos der Hellenen, 1903), Orestes is an hypostasis of Apollo, Pyrrhus the principle of evil, which is overcome by the god; on the other hand, Usener (Archiv fur Religionswesen, vii., 1899, 334) takes Orestes for a god of winter and the underworld, a double of the Phocian Dionysus the "mountain" god (among the Ionians a summer-god, but in this case corresponding to Dionysus j Xavaiyis), who subdues Pyrrhus "the light," the double of Apollo, the whole being a form of the well-known myths of the expulsion of summer by winter.
In the 11th century B.C., according to tradition (the date is probably too early), Androclus, son of the Athenian king Codrus, landed on the spot with his Ionians and a mixed body of colonists; and from his conquest dates the history of the Greek Ephesus.
After the Dorian invasion the community was divided anew into the ordinary three Dorian tribes and an equally privileged tribe of Ionians, besides which a class of rcopvvrtcao,00e or Karwvauochopoe lived on the land as serfs., For some centuries Sicyon remained subject to Argos, whence its Dorian conquerors had come; as late as 50o B.C. it acknowledged a certain suzerainty.
Besides reforming the city's constitution to the advantage of the Ionians and replacing Dorian cults by the worship of Dionysus, Cleisthenes gained renown as the chief instigator and general of the First Sacred War (5go) in the interests of the Delphians.
The epithet Aeolian implies high antiquity, inasmuch as according to Herodotus Smyrna became Ionian about 688 B.C. Naturally the Ionians had their own version of the story - a version which made Homer come out with the first Athenian colonists.