Ireland, Iona, the Culdees, &c.) from the early centuries of church history and throughout the medieval ages down to the Reformation of the 16th century.
Walafrid's poetical works also include a short life of St Blaithinaic, a high-born monk of Iona, murdered by the Danes in the first half of the 9th century; a life of St Mammas; and a Liber de visionibus Wettini.
Columba established himself on the island of Hy or Iona, where he erected a church and a monastery.
The monastery of Iona was reverenced as the mother house of all these foundations, and its abbots were obeyed as the chief ecclesiastical rulers of the whole nation of the northern Picts.
There were then neither dioceses nor parishes in Ireland and Celtic Scotland; and by the Columbite rule the bishops themselves, although they ordained the clergy, were subject to the jurisdiction of the abbots of Iona, who, like the founder of the order, were only presbyters.
The earliest biography was written by one of his successors, Cuminius, who became abbot of Iona in 657.
Much more important is the enlargement of that work by Adamnan, who became abbot of Iona in 679.
The Inner Hebrides are much more scattered and principally include Skye, Small Isles (Canna, Sanday, Rum, Eigg and Muck), Coll, Tyree, Lismore, Mull, Ulva, Staffa, Iona, Kerrera, the Slate Islands (Seil, Easdale, Luing, Shuna, Torsay), Colonsay, Oronsay, Scarba, Jura, Islay and Gigha.
He appears to have spent some of his exile in Iona, where he was instructed in the principles of Christianity.
Of many who deserve mention in connexion with this period, the most prominent were: Columba, the founder of the famous monastery of Iona in 563 and the evangelizer of the Albanian Scots and northern Picts; Aidan, the apostle of Northumbria; Columbanus, the apostle of the Burgundians of the Vosges (S90); Callich or Gallus (d.
Travelling generally in companies, and carrying a simple outfit, these Celtic pioneers flung themselves on the continent of Europe, and, not content with reproducing at Annegray or Luxeuil the willow or brushwood huts, the chapel and the round tower, which they had left behind in Derry or in the island of Hy (Iona), they braved the dangers of the northern seas, and penetrated as far as the Faroes and even far distant Iceland.
As these two references suggest, the festival was associated with a professional pilgrimage, in commemoration of the passing of Christ and his apostles to the Mount of Olives; such a procession is described by Adamnan, abbot of Iona, as taking place at Jerusalem in the 7th century, when the feast was celebrated in the church on Mount Olivet (de loc. sand.
On his return he was driven by contrary winds to Britain, and so came to Iona, where he related his experiences to his host, the abbot Adamnan (679-704).
In 563-565 he founded his mission and monastery in the isle of Iona, and journeying to Inverness he converted the king of the Picts.
Edinburgh, a dubious etymology), and in that kingdom St Aidan, from Iona, erected the Columban churches under the auspices of Oswald, whose brother Oswin dominated Strathclyde and Pictland up to the Grampians; the English element, for the time, extending itself and anglicizing more and more of the Scotland that was to be.
The English Christians overcame the Celtic divines of Iona, and in 710 even in Pictland they came into the customs of western Christianity.
On the analogy of the old Itineraria, the abbot Adamnan of Iona (d.
They attacked Man in 798 and Iona in 802.
Plunderings of Iona are mentioned in A.D.
The great Benedictine abbey of Fulda occupies the place in the ecclesiastical history of Germany which Monte Cassino holds in Italy, St Gall in South Germany, Corvey in Saxony, Tours in France and Iona in Scotland.
Another view, promulgated like the above by Hector Boece in his Latin history of Scotland (1516), makes them the direct successors in the 9th to the 12th century of the organized Irish and Iona monasticism of the 6th to the 8th century.
They seem especially to have had the care of the poor and the sick, and were interested in the musical part of worship. Meanwhile in Scotland the Iona monks had been expelled by the Pictish king Nechtan in 717, and the vacancies thus caused were by no means filled by the Roman monks who thronged into the north from Northumbria.
The cathedral churches of St Giles, Edinburgh, and of Brechin and Dunblane, the abbey church of Paisley and the Church of the Holy Trinity, St Andrews, have been restored; and the abbey of Iona, handed over to the Church of Scotland by the duke of Argyll, is now once more fitted up for worship.
In 679 he was elected abbot of Hy or Iona, being ninth in succession from the founder, St Columba.
While on a mission to the court of King Aldfrith of Northumberland in 686, he was led to adopt the Roman rules with regard to the time for celebrating Easter and the tonsure, and on his return to Iona he tried without success to enforce the change upon the monks.
615), and Cumean (Cumine Ailbha, abbot of Iona); in the Frankish kingdom the most interesting work is the Penitential of Halitgar, bishop of Cambrai 7 from 817 to 831.
Excepting Iona it has received more of Caledonia's royal dead than any other place in the kingdom.
606), king of the Scottish kingdom of Dalriada, was the son of Gabran, king of Dalriada, and became king after the death of his kinsman King Conall, when he was crowned at Iona by St Columba.
Such men were Egil, the foe of Eirik Bloodaxe and the friend of lEthelstan; Kormak, the hot-headed champion; Eyvind, King Haakon's poet, called Skaldaspillir, because he copied in his dirge over that king the older and finer Eiriksmal; Gunnlaug, who sang at Ã†thelred's court, and fell at the hands of a brother bard, Hrafn; Hallfred, Olaf Tryggvason's poet, who lies in Iona by the side of Macbeth; Sighvat, Saint Olaf's henchman, most prolific of all his comrades; Thormod, Coalbrow's poet, who died singing after Sticklestad battle; Ref, Ottar the Black, Arnor the earls' poet, and, of those whose poetry was almost confined to Iceland, Gretti, Biorn the Hitdale champion, and the two model Icelandic masters, Einar Skulason and Markus the Lawman, both of the 12th century.
Of the north there are the sagas of Kormak (930-960), most primitive of all, a tale of a wild poet's love and feuds, containing many notices of the heathen times; of Vatzdeelasaga (890-980), relating to the settlement and the chief family in Waterdale; of Hallfred the poet (996-1014), narrating his fortune at King Olaf's court, his love affairs in Iceland, and finally his death and burial at Iona; of Reyk -deela (990), which preserves the lives of Askell and his son Viga-Skuti; of Svarf-deela (980-990), a cruel, coarse story of the old days, with some good scenes in it, unfortunately imperfect, chapters I-10 being forged; of VigaGlum (970-990), a fine story of a heathen hero, brave, crafty and cruel.
Thus there were coarbs of Columba at Iona, Kells, Derry, burrow and other places.
In 563 Columba founded the monastery of Hi (Iona), which spread the knowledge of the Gospel among the Picts of the Scottish mainland.
From this same solitary outpost went forth the illustrious Aidan to plant another Iona at Lindisfarne, which, " long after the poor parent brotherhood had fallen to decay, expanded itself into the bishopric of Durham."
The north and Iona on the other hand refused to give in until Adamnan induced the north of Ireland to yield in 697, while Iona held out until 716, although by this time the monastery had lost its influence in Pictland.