He was extremely superstitious, and believed in invocations of the dead.
The ease with which explicit invocations attach themselves to many of these apparently self-contained forms proves that there is not necessarily any perceived difference of kind, and that implicit address as towards a "something not-ourselves" is often the true designation of the latter.
Their language is vague and allegorical, full of allusions and pious Mussulman invocations; the author continually announces that he is about to speak without mystery or reserve, but all the same never gives any precise details of the secrets he professes to reveal.
The name Vispered, meaning " all the chiefs " (vispe ratavo), has reference to the spiritual heads of the religion of Ormuzd, invocations to whom form the contents of the first chapter of the book.
They contain invocations of separate Izads, or angels, number 21 in all, and are of widely divergent extent and antiquity.
As an almost universal rule, in the lowest culture, no prayers are addressed to this being; he has no sacrifices, no dwelling made with hands; and the images of him, in clay, that are made and danced round with invocations of his name at the tribal ceremonies of initiation, are destroyed at the close of the performances.
It is the ritual of a magician, imbedded in which, and alternating with magic formulae and other occult matter, are a number of invocations and prayers which Dieterich reconstructs as a liturgy in use by the clergy of Mithras between A.D.
The process was usually explained as the result of the action of a spirit, angel or devil, and many unessential formulae, invocations, "calls," written charms with cabbalistic signs, and fumigations, were employed.
But we have a building inscription from Persepolis, which contains his name and genealogy, and invocations of Ahuramazda and Mithra.
Belief in the power of the nakshatras evidently inspired the invocations of them in the Atharva-Veda.
2), that this " magician " used in the Eucharist cups apparently mixt with wine, but really containing water, and during long invocations made them appear " purple and red, as if the universal Grace xapes dropped some of her blood into the cup through his invocation, and by way of inspiring worshippers with a passion to taste the cup and drink deep of the influence termed Charis."