Scholars agree in associating the earliest concordats with the celebrated contest about investitures (q.v.), which so profoundly agitated Christian Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries.
War was thus declared between the two chiefs of western Christendom, that war of investitures which out-lasted the lives of both Gregory and Henry, and was not terminated till the year 1122.
The final gainers, however, by the war of investitures were the Italians.
As the bishops had helped to free them from subservience to their feudal masters, so the war of investitures relieved them of dependence on their bishops.
In the republics, as we begin to know them after the war of investitures, government was carried on by officers called consuls, varying in number according to custom and according to the division of the town into districts.
Though the communes gained so much by the war of investitures, the division of the country between the popes and emperors parties was no small price to pay for inde- Munlelpendence.
No sooner had the compromise of the investitures been conduded than it was manifest that the burghers of the new enfranchised communes were resolved to turn their arms against each other.
In 1074 Gregory actually assembled a considerable army; but his disagreement with Robert Guiscard, followed by the outbreak of the war of investitures, hindered the realization of his plans, and the only result was a precedent and a suggestion for the events of 1095.
The crusaders of northern Germany never went to the Holy Land at all; they were allowed the crusaders' privileges for attacking the Wends to the east of the Elbe - a fact which at once attests the cleavage between northern and southern Germany (intensified of late years by the war of investitures), and anticipates the age of the Teutonic knights and their long Crusade on the Baltic. The crusaders of the Low Countries and of England took the sea route, and attacked and captured Lisbon on their way, thus helping to found the kingdom of Portugal, and achieving the one real success which was gained by the Second Crusade.
The alliance of crown and church was subsequently imperilled by the question of Investitures (1103-1106).
In the Wars of the Investitures Matilda was ever on the papal (afterwards called Guelph) side against the emperor and the faction afterwards known as Ghibelline, and she herself often led armies to battle.
The general tendency of its policy throughout the war of investitures was Imperial and not Roman; and its bishops were, for the most part, Germans.
He afterwards became bishop of Chalons-sur-Marne, and took part in the dispute concerning investitures as a supporter of Calixtus II., whom he represented at the conference of Mousson.
In the biographical notices of the various popes, or in such articles as Church History; Roman Catholic Church; Investitures; Canon Law; Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction; Ultramontanism; or the articles on the various ecclesiastical councils.
It was still being held in strict subjection by the latter when, towards the end of the i ith century, Hildebrand (Gregory VII.) undertook its enfranchisement and began the war of the investitures (q.v.), from which the papacy was to issue with such an extraordinary renewal of its vitality.
Gregory claimed that the same condition should apply to bishops, and these were the grounds of the dispute about investitures - a dispute which could find no solution, for it was impossible for the Teutonic sovereigns to renounce all interest in a matter of such importance in the workings of their state.
Its details cannot be described in this place (see Investitures); we need only say that this ill-fated quarrel was not calculated to advance the reform movement, but rather to impede it, and, further, that it ended in failure.
As for the French question of the investitures, it was settled apparently without any treaty being expressly drawn up between the parties.
It must not, however, be forgotten that, in the negotiations at Sutri, Paschal had pride and independence enough to propose to the emperor the only solution of the conflict that was entirely logical and essentially Christian, namely, the renunciation by the Church of its temporal power and the renunciation by the lay lords of all intervention in elections and investitures - in other words, the absolute separation of the priesthood and the state.
The war of investitures that followed was the opening of the tremendous struggle between the Empire and the Papacy, which is the ceiitral fact of medieval history and The which, after two centuries of conflict, ended in the struggle exhaustion of both powers.
The early years of Henry Vs reign were spent in campaigns in Flanders, Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, but the new king was soon reminded that the dispute over investitures Henry V.
During the investitures dispute Giffard was on friendly terms with Anselm, and drew upon himself a sentence of banishment through declining to accept consecration from the archbishop of York (1103).
Then, after William had reluctantly yielded on this point, the far more important question of lay investitures cropped up. The council of Clermont (Nov.
Throughout the time of Henrys Norman war, he was engaged in a tiresome controversy with the primate on the question of lay investitures, the continuation of the struggle which Henrys had begun in his brothers reign.
The Papacy, foreseeing the breach with the emperor over investitures, now resolved to recognize the Normans and secure them as allies.