When Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, was placed under the imperial ban in 1180, Otto's services were rewarded by the investiture of the dukedom of Bavaria at Altenburg.
In this concordat a distinction was made between spiritual investiture, by the ring and pastoral staff, and lay or feudal investiture, by the sceptre.
The emperor renounced investiture by ring and staff, and permitted canonical elections; the pope on his part recognized the king's right to perform lay investiture and to assist at elections.
In 1075 he caused the investiture of ecclesiastica dignitaries by secular potentates of any degree to be condemned These two reforms, striking at the most cherished privileges ant most deeply-rooted self-indulgences of the aristocratic caste ii Europe, inflamed the bitterest hostility.
By the concordat of Worms, 1122, the emperor surrendered the right of investiture by ring and staff, and granted the right of election to the clergy.
On the other hand the pope ceded to the emperor the right of investiture by the sceptre.
The points of dispute between them related mainly to Matildas bequest, and to the kingdom of Sicily, which the pope had rendered independent of the empire by renewing its investiture in the name of the Holy See.
They made him senator of Rome and vicar of Tuscany, and promised him the investiture of the regno provided he stipulated that it should not be held in combination with the empire.
Had made a surrender to the emperor Henry V., Guido called a council at Vienne, which declared against lay investiture, and excommunicated Henry.
This treaty, made possible by concessions on either side, settled the investiture controversy, and was confirmed by the Lateran council of March 1123.
In order to take possession of his new see, he had to brave the wrath of the duke of Burgundy, override the resistance of the clergy and bourgeoisie, and even withstand an armed attack on the part of several lords; but his protector, the duke of Orleans, had his investiture performed by Wenceslaus, king of the Romans.
The simplex is worn on Good Friday, and at masses for the dead; also at the blessing of the candles at Candlemas, the singing of the absolution at the coffin, and the solemn investiture with the pallium.
310, as carried by the bishop of Rochester at an investiture of the Knights of the Bath (1725), and by the archbishops and bishops at the coronation of George II.
As a recompense, he was nominated archbishop of Toulouse (May 28, 1652), but had to wait for the bulls of investiture till the 23rd of March 1654.
The figure B also shows the peculiar neural investiture formed by the cerebral arteries in Limulus and the derivation from this of the arteries to the limbs, III, IV, VI, whereas in Scorpio the latter have a separate origin from the anterior aorta.
De' Medici being granted the investiture of the Sienese state by the patent of Philip II.
The political independence of Hungary was ultimately secured by the outbreak of the quarrel about investiture (1076), when L Geza I.
Kuprili, who had forbidden the Polish enterprise, at once occupied Transylvania, and, in the course of the next five years, no fewer than four princes, three of whom died violent deaths, were forced to accept the kaftan and kalpag of investiture in the camp of the grand vizier.
The commune of Cremona is first mentioned in a document of r098, recording its investiture by the countess Matilda with the territory known as Isola Fulcheria.
The new pope Boniface VIII., elected in 1294 at Naples under the auspices of King Charles, mediated between the latter and James, and a most dishonourable treaty was signed: James was to marry Charles's daughter Bianca and was promised the investiture by the pope of Sardinia and Corsica, while he was to leave the Angevin a free hand in Sicily and even to assist him if the Sicilians resisted.
Renewed declarations against simony, lay investiture, and clerical marriages, and in a policy of continued opposition to Henry IV.
In the ceremony of homage and investiture, which is the creative contract of feudalism, the obligations assumed by the two parties were, as a rule, not specified in exact terms. They were determined by local custom.
In the peace of Utrecht he was ignored; Sardinia and Sicily, Parma and Piacenza, were disposed of without regard to papal claims. When he quarrelled with the duke of Savoy, and revoked his investiture rights in Sicily (1715), his interdict was treated with contempt.
In the prosecution of this enterprise Frederick spent large sums of money, for which he received various places in Bohemia and elsewhere in pledge from Sigismund, who further rewarded him in January 1423 with the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg; and Frederick's formal investiture followed at Ofen on the 1st of August 1425.
The founder of the Mevlevi dancing dervishes, the poet Mahommed Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi), in 1307, though tempted to assume the inheritance along with the empire of the Seljuk sultan Ala ed-din Kaikobad III., who died without heirs, preferred to pass on the power to Osman, son of Ertogrul, and with his own hands invested Osman and girt him with the sword: this investiture was the legitimate beginning of the Osmanli authority.
The head of the Mevlevi dervishes (Aziz-Effendi, HazretiMevlana, Mollah-Unkiar, commonly styled simply ChelebiEffendi) has the right to gird on the sultan's sword at his investiture, and is master of the considerable revenues of the greatest religious establishment in the empire.
The oath of fealty, which could be received by proxy, followed the act of homage; then came the ceremony of investiture, either directly on the ground or by the delivery of a turf, a handful of earth, a stone, or some other symbolical object.
Finally, in 114 9, after crushing a last attempt at revolt, he handed over the duchy to his son Henry "Curtmantel," who received the investiture at the hands of the king of France.
His efforts to continue the investiture controversy were not very serious.
It is usually said that, at the synod which deposed Benedict, Leo conceded to the emperor and his successors as sovereign of Italy full rights of investiture, but the genuineness of the document on which this allegation rests is more than doubtful.
Frederick was unable at first to persuade Henry Jasomirgott to abandon Bavaria, but in June 1154 he recognized the claim of Henry the Lion, who accompanied him on his first Italian campaign and distinguished himself in suppressing a rising at Rome, Henry's formal investiture as duke of Bavaria taking place in September 1156 on the emperor's return to Germany.
For the transference of a bishopric a special legal form was evolved - that of investiture, the king investing the bishop elect with the see by delivering to him the ring and pastoral staff.
No one found anything objectionable in this; investiture with a bishopric was parallel with the appointment by a territorial proprietor to a patronal church.
The formal investiture of the new elector took place at Augsburg in February 1548.
He has left The Game of Chess, an imitation of Vida, and Proporzec albo hold pruski (The Standard or Investiture of Prussia), where he describes the fealty done by Albert of Brandenburg to Sigismund Augustus.
He was received with great enthusiasm at Avignon, Montpellier and other cities, held a synod at Vienne in January 1119, and was planning to hold a general council to settle the investiture contest when he died at Cluny.
In spite of this, he went to Italy in 1132 in the train of the king, and his services there were rewarded, in 1134, by the investiture of the north mark, which was again without a ruler.
By an arrangement made in 1254 he surrendered part of it to Bela, but when the dispute was renewed he defeated the Hungarians in July 1260 and secured the whole of Styria for himself, owing his formal investiture with Austria and Styria to the German king, Richard, earl of Cornwall.
He took no pains to temper the zeal of his legates, but incited them to the struggle, and, not content with prohibiting lay investiture and simony, expressly forbade prelates and even priests to pay homage to the civil power.
The vast conflict aroused by the Hildebrandine reformation, and particularly the investiture quarrel, continued under the Settlement three successors of Urban II.; but with them it of the assumed a different character, and a tendency arose Investiture to terminate it by other means.
Dividing what the irreconcilables of the Hildebrandine party considered as an indissoluble whole, they made a sharp distinction between the property of the Church and the Church itself, between the political and territorial power of the bishops and their religious authority, and between the feudal investiture which confers lands and jurisdiction and the spiritual investiture which confers ecclesiastical rights.
Ceased to practice spiritual investiture, or even to receive feudal homage from the bishops.
The crown in England also abandoned investiture by the pastoral staff and ring, but, more fortunate than in France, retained the right of receiving feudal homage from the episcopate.
Guy, the archbishop of Vienne, who had been one of the investiture was divided between the ecclesiastical and the lay powers, the emperor investing with the sceptre, the pope with the pastoral staff and ring.
And, again, if this transaction settled the investiture question, it did not solve the problem of the reconciliation of the universal power of the popes with the claims of the emperors to the government of Europe; and the conflict subsisted - slumbering, it is true, but ever ready to awake under other forms. Nevertheless, the two great Christian agitations directed by the papacy at the end of the nth century and the beginning of the 12th - the reformation and the crusade - were of capital importance for the foundation of the immense religious monarchy that had its centre in Rome; and it is from this period that the papal monarchy actually dates.
When the schism of 1130 broke out he endeavoured to procure the cancellation of the clauses of the Concordat of Worms and to recover lay investiture by way of compensation for the support he had given to Innocent II., one of the competing popes.
Since then we discover in the Capitularies of Charlemagne actual mention of "caballarii " as a class of warriors, it may reasonably be concluded that formal investiture with arms applied to the " caballarii " if it was a usage extending beyond the sovereign and his heir-apparent.
When William of Malmesbury describes the knighting of Athelstan by his grandfather Alfred the Great, that is, his investiture " with a purple garment set with gems and a Saxon sword with a golden sheath," there is no hint of any religious observance.
The investiture with arms, which formed a part of the longer form of knighting, and which we have seen to rest on very ancient usage, may originally have had a distinct meaning.
The investiture was bestowed upon Duke Henry but upon his second wife, Theodora; in case of a failure of male heirs the duchy was to descend to females; and if the duke had no children he could nominate his successor.