We understand by economics the science which investigates the manner in which nations or other larger or smaller communities, and their individual members, obtain food, clothing, shelter and whatever else is considered desirable or necessary for the maintenance and improvement of the conditions of life.
Still, the idea of the exact measurement of sensation has been a fruitful one, and mainly through his influence on Wundt, Fechner was the father of that "new" psychology of laboratories which investigates human faculties with the aid of exact scientific apparatus.
Experimental science, which in the Opus Tertium (p. 46) is distinguished from the speculative sciences and the operative arts in a way that forcibly reminds us of Francis Bacon, is said to have three great prerogatives over all other sciences: - (1) It verifies their conclusions by direct experiment; (2) It discovers truths which they could never reach; (3) It investigates the secrets of nature, and opens to us a knowledge of past and future.
For example, the physicist determines the density, elasticity, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, &c.; the chemist, on the other hand, investigates changes in composition, such as may be effected by an electric current, by heat, or when two or more substances are mixed.
Again, the sciences all seek to educe general laws; dialectic investigates the nature of such laws, and the kind and degree of necessity to which they can attain.
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
In the Ethics to Eudemus, as Porphyry properly called the Eudemian Ethics, Aristotle in the first four books successively investigates happiness, virtue, the voluntary and the particular moral virtues, in the same order and in the same letter and spirit as in his Ethics to Nicomachus.
F 1), and investigates the axioms or common principles of things as things (ib.
The philosopher, as he says, investigates truth; the sophist embellishes it, and takes it for granted.
Poinsot's earliest work was his Elemens de statique (1803; 9th edition, 1848), in which he introduces the idea of statical couples and investigates their properties.
Dialectic then investigates the nexus which must be held to obtain between all thoughts, but also that agreement with the nexus in being which is the condition of the validity of the thought-nexus.
Under an act approved on the 25th of March 1903 a state board of charities and corrections, - consisting of six members, not more than three being of the same political party, appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, and holding office for twelve years, two retiring at the end of each quadrennium, - investigates, examines, and makes " reports upon the charitable, correctional and penal institutions of the state," excepting the Veterans' Home at Yountville, Napa county, and the Woman's Relief Corps Home at Evergreen, Santa Clara county.
The psychologist investigates the ideal construction of the self, i.e.
Thus anatomy and physiology display the structure and functions of the human body, while psychology investigates the operations of the human mind.
The philosophy of religion, on the other hand, investigates the nature of the religious consciousness and the value of its pronouncements on human life and man's relation to the ground of things.
The former investigates essentially general properties, such as the weight and density, the relation between pressure, volume and temperature (piezometric and thermometric properties), calorimetric properties, diffusion, viscosity, electrical and thermal conductivity, &c., and generally properties independent of composition.
In logic and metaphysics it investigates either the process of apprehension itself, or conceptions such as cause, substance, space, time, which the ordinary scientific consciousness never criticizes.
In moral philosophy the place of the body of sciences, which philosophy as the theory of knowledge investigates, is taken by the developed moral consciousness, which already pronounces moral judgment without hesitation, and claims authority to subject to continual criticism the institutions and forms of social life which it has itself helped to create.
It is impossible also to dissociate pharmacology from clinical therapeutics; the former investigates the agents which are used in the treatment of disease, the latter is concerned with their remedial powers and the conditions under which they are to be used.
A state board of charities has supervision over all philanthropic and penal institutions in the state, including hospitals, which numbered 103 in 1907; and the board visits the almshouses supported by seventy-eight (of the 168) towns of the state, and investigates and supervises the provision made for the town poor in the other ninety towns of the state; some, as late as 1906, were, with the few paupers maintained by the state, cared for in a private almshouse at Tariffville, which was commonly known as the " state almshouse.
The first book deals with the generation of the three conics; the second with the asymptotes, axes and diameters; the third with various metrical relations between transversals, chords, tangents, asymptotes, &c.; the fourth with the theory of the pole and polar, including the harmonic division of a straight line, and with systems of two conics, which he shows to intersect in not more than four points; he also investigates conics having single and double contact.
Cause, and logia, discourse), strictly, the science or philosophy of causation, but generally used to denote the part of any special science (and especially of that of medicine and disease) which investigates the causes and origin of its phenomena.
Theoretical Astronomy is that branch of the science which, making use of the results of astronomical observations as they are supplied by the practical astronomer, investigates the motions of the heavenly bodies.