From June to October the inundations of the Mekong cover most of the country, portions of which, notably the Plaine des Jones in the north and a large tract of the peninsula of Ca-Mau, are little else than marshes.
The most remarkable inundations were those of 1537 and 1740; in the former year the water rose to 8 ft.
The mines suffered greatly from inundations in 1868 and 1879, and the soil on which the town is built shows signs of subsidence.
Recently upheaved from the sea were spread at low levels with alternate inundations of salt and fresh water.
The city, said to be the "Eden" of Charles Dickens's Martin Chuzzlewit, is built on a tongue of land between the rivers, and has suffered many times from inundations, notably in 1858.
The valley in which the town is situated used to be subject to inundations, but in 1805 a tunnel was constructed by means of which the surplus waters of the Bied are carried into the Doubs.
The ordinary rise and fall of the river is comparatively slight, but when the west wind blows steadily for a long time, or when Lake Ladoga sends down its vast accumulations of block-ice, inundations of a dangerous kind occur, as in 1777, 1824, 1879 and 1903.
All have perished in the numerous sieges and inundations which have devastated the city.
There is evidence that, towards the close of the mediaeval period, great storms and tidal inundations occurred on the shores of the North Sea and Baltic, and in the course of these floods, culminating in 1297, the Zuider Zee was formed from a lake that existed in its neighbourhood, by the breaking down of dykes.
In the depression between the Bureya range and the coast ranges it suffers greatly from the heavy July and August rains, and from inundations, while on the lower Amur the agriculturists barely maintain themselves by growing cereals in clearances on the slopes of the hills, so that the settlements on the lower Amur and Usuri continually require help from government to save them from famine.
Dunkirk forms with Bergues, Bourbourg and Gravelines a group of fortresses enclosed by inundations and canals.
This is especially true of the flood plains where the annual inundations prevent the formation of humus and retard forest growth.
Regulating works have been undertaken to ward off the dangers of periodical inundations, which occur in the valley of the Danube and of the other great rivers, as the Theiss, the Drave and the Save.
The beds of these rivers, as well as that of the Danube, are continually changing, forming morasses and pools, and rendering the country near their banks marshy, Notwithstanding the work already done, such as canalizing and regulating the rivers, the erection of dams, &c., the problems of preventing inundations, and of reclaiming the marshes, have not yet been satisfactorily solved.
In spite, however, of all that has been done, the Elbe remains subject to serious inundations at periodic intervals.
The island of South Beveland frequently suffered from inundations and experienced a particularly disastrous one in 1530.
Similarly the original port of Breskens was destroyed by inundations in the 15th and 16th centuries.
It is true that the river forms at this point several arms, and the adjoining districts were subjected to periodical inundations, while navigation was by no means easy here.
Above sea-level and is defended from inundations by an embankment above the town, called the Murallon.
The gain would be the addition to the kingdom of a new and fertile province of the area of North Brabant, a saving of expenses on dikes, diminution of inundations, improvement of communication between the south and the north of the kingdom, protection of isles of the sea, &c. The costs were calculated as follows: (I) enclosing dike, sluices, and regulation of Zwolsche Diep, £1,760,000; (2) reclamation of four polders, £5,200,000; (3) defensive works, £400,000; (4) indemnity to fishermen, £180,000; total, £7,540,000.
The city has suffered much through inundations from the Rio Dulce, and from frequent local revolutions caused by misgovernment and the struggles of rival factions.
It is an important fortress, forming the principal point d'appui of the line of defensive inundations called the "New Holland Water Line," in addition to its position as a railway centre.
Of these the works facing the east would in war time cover the assembly of troops destined to operate outside the Water Line, while those of the north and south fronts would be surrounded by inundations and serve chiefly to control the sluices.
It was begun in 1607 - a year when the city was completely flooded - but was not completed until 1789, and then it was found that the city was still subject to partial inundations, although an enormous sum of money and 70,000 lives of Indian labourers had been expended upon it.
Hippocrates, writing in the 5th century B.C., says of the people of the Phasis that their country is hot and marshy and subject to frequent inundations, and that they live in houses of timber and reeds constructed in the midst of the waters, and use boats of a single tree trunk.
The Terpen of Holland appear as mounds somewhat similar to those of the terremare, and were also pile structures, on low or marshy lands subject to inundations from the sea.
He was employed by Napoleon to superintend the engineering operations for protecting the province of Ferrara against the inundations of the Po and for draining and improving the Pontine Marshes.
After that there was for a time comparative immunity from inundations, but in 1882 fresh outbursts again began.
Texcoco is now connected with the new drainage works of the capital and is no longer a menace to its population through inundations and pestilential fevers.
It had been protected under the native kings by a system of dikes, which were added to under the earlier viceroys, but serious inundations in 1553 and 1580 flooded the city, and the latter suggested the relief of the highest lake, that of Zumpango, by a tunnel carrying its chief affluent into a tributary of the Panuco, and so to the Atlantic. This, however, was not then undertaken, and when mooted again in 1603 was opposed as certain to involve a heavy sacrifice of Indian life.
The town of Kronstadt is built on level ground, and is thus exposed to inundations, from one of which it suffered in 1824.
During inundations it attains a length of 20 m., and a breadth.
The rivers themselves, of which there are as many as fifty, are little more than mountain torrents, all rising on the northern slopes of Elburz, flowing mostly in independent channels to the Caspian, and subject to sudden freshets and inundations along their lower course.
The history of Mecca is full of the record of these inundations, unsuccessfully combated by the great dam drawn across the valley by the caliph Omar (Kutbeddin, p. 76), and later works of Mandi.5 The fixed population of Mecca in 1878 was estimated by Assistant-Surgeon `Abd el-Razzaq at 50,000 to 60,000; there is a large floating population - and that not merely at the proper season of pilgrimage, the pilgrims of one season often beginning to arrive before those of the former season have all dispersed.
7° N., and not far from the sources of the Sin(' and Bacuba, is essentially a river of the plain, flowing north-east across a level country filled with small lakes and subject to inundations to a junction with the Cauca just before it joins the Magdalena.
In 1357, but in consequence of frequent storms and inundations it was only completedin 1503.
The scene presents to a European eye a panorama of singular novelty and interest - rice fields covered with water to a great depth; the ears of grain floating on the surface; the stupendous embankments, which restrain without altogether preventing the excesses of the inundations; and peasants going out to their daily work with their cattle in canoes or on rafts.
In the face of great natural catastrophes, such as river inundations, famines, tidal waves and cyclones of the lower provinces of Bengal, the religious instinct works with a vitality unknown in European countries.
Among these is the argument from the numerous borings made in the alluvium of the Nile valley to a depth of 60 ft., where down to the lowest level fragments of burnt brick and pottery were always found, showing that people advanced enough in the arts to bake brick and pottery have inhabited the valley during the long period required for the Nile inundations to deposit 60 ft.
The lower course of the Tiber has been from the earliest ages subject to frequent and severe inundations; of more recent ones, those of 1598, 1870 and 1900 have been especially destructive, but since the year 1876 the municipality of Rome, assisted by the Italian Government, has taken steps to check, and possibly to prevent these calamities within the city by constructing embankments of stone, resting on caissons, for a total distance (counting in both sides of the river) of 6 miles.
Having boasted that he could construct a machine for regulating the inundations of the Nile, he was summoned to Egypt by the caliph Hakim; but, aware of the impracticability of his scheme, and fearing the caliph's anger, he feigned madness until Hakim's death in 1021.
The eastern tract consists of rich alluvial soil, well watered, and subject to fertilizing inundations, yielding heavy crops of coarse rice, oil-seeds and jute.