Here then characteristically intuitionalism occupies a half-way house between empiricism, with its appeal to real given fact, and idealism, with its appeal to necessity.
But Intuitionalism has further arguments for the doubter.
Two regions become prominent in the working out of intuitionalism, if still more prominent in the widely differing philosophy of Kant - the regions of mathematics and of morals.
Great as is the difference when we pass from mathematics to morality, yet there are striking similarities, and here again intuitionalism claims to find much support.
A critic of intuition- Criticism alism might add that they are its whole strength; of intuitionalism is sound upon the intellectual and moral interests of humanity, but it does little to justify them.
It reasserts them, with resolute loyalty; but if philosophy ought to vindicate, to explain, perhaps incidentally to modify, even, it may be, to purify our primary beliefs, intuitionalism is hardly a philosophy at all.
Other schools of philosophy pay flying visits to theism; intuitionalism is at home there.
But intuitionalism claims to allege a higher certainty; everything (or every change) must have a cause - this is not merely actual fact but necessary truth.
The design argument is available for the slightly bolder philosophy of intuitionalism as well as for empiricist theism.
Moral elements must enter into theism at some point: and, as against empiricism, intuitionalism is morally strong.
2 Any attempt to treat " cause " as pointing to a truth here, but inadequately, would lead us beyond intuitionalism into some phase of idealism.
If we answer " Yes " to that question, we pass on from intuitionalism to idealism - an idealism not on the lines of Berkeley (matter does not exist) but of Plato (things A obey an ascertainable rational necessity).
Which, if it conceives any tertium quid besides empiricism and intuitionalism, is apt to think of scepticism.
The fixed given points of intuitionalism furnish Hamilton with one of his arguments in his unexpected development towards a sceptical or " faith philosophy."
A less sophisticated intuitionalism would rejoin with great force, " These are matters of sight; it could not be otherwise, and you see that it could not !
Kant then has broken away from intuitionalism by substituting one system of necessity for the many necessary truths or given experiences from which intuitionalism takes its start.
Theism then has its most habitual affinities with intuitionalism, but may fall under any one of our philosophical or quasi philosophical types.
We have distinguished three types or tendencies: empiricism, intuitionalism, idealism.
(3) If we accept the suggestion offered above - that a priori in Kant and later thinkers =necessary - we place ourselves on the track which leads from intuitionalism to some form of idealism.
The element of givenness, dominant in empiricism, and partially surviving through intuitionalism even into Kant, is sublimated in Hegel's thinking.
Intuitionalism supposes that there are two realms - of necessity and freedom, of nature and will, of matter and mind; contiguous, independent, yet interacting - dualism.
If it is ultimate truth in its own region, that region cannot be accepted as more than half the entire universe of reality (common sense intuitionalism; dualism).
It is a manifest weakness in intuitionalism Evolu- that it finds such difficulty in leaving room for evolu- tionary change.
In the light of that truth, a reformed intuitionalism might justify itself.
But fuller conceptions of evolution raise further difficulties for intuitionalism in its wonted forms. Knowledge cannot be divided into the two components - immediate certainties, precarious inferences.
4 Evolution, repelled by the older intuitionalism, was thus incorporated in the greatest of all idealisms. It has also been largely applied to empiricism.
It has been truly observed' that the lineaments of Cicero intuitionalism are very clear in him.
One may regard him as an idealist, though Scottish intuitionalism - especially in the writings of Professor John Veitch - has claimed him for its own; and indeed Descartes's two substances of active mind and passive extended matter are very much akin to " Natural Dualism."
Dismissing his earlier intuitionalism, in order, like Butler, to conciliate an empiricist age, M.
Intuitionalism also has its restatements of theistic reasoning little modified by Kant.
Of the cosmological proof; but Martineau follows a side modification of intuitionalism (Maine de Biran, &c.) in identifying cause with will.
This is an intuitionalist touch, or a parallel to intuitionalism, and has called forth a gibe from that very confident ratiocinator, J.
3 Intuitionalism in its turn may harden out of " natural " dualism into moral dualism; either a literally Manichaean scheme - a good God impeded by an evil personality or principle (Bayle) - or belief in a good God of limited powers (Mill).
Thus some arose who declared allegiance to the idealistic intuitionalism of Wang Yang-ming, and others advocated direct study of the works of Confucius and Mencius.
It is opposed to all forms of intuitionalism, and holds that the mind is originally an absolute blank (tabula rasa), on which, as it were, sense-given impressions are mechanically recorded, without any action on the part of the mind.
It is impossible, e.g., to accept his ordered hierarchy of " springs of action " without perceiving that the real principle upon which they can be arranged in order at all must depend upon considerations of circumstances and consequences, of stations and duties, with which a strict intuitionalism such as that of Martineau would have no dealing.'