But how can we explain the formation of this poetic wisdom, which, albeit the work of ignorant men, has so deep and intrinsic a philosophic value?
Aequitas), a term which in its most general sense means equality or justice; in its most technical sense it means a system of law or a body of connected legal principles, which have superseded or supplemented the common law on the ground of their intrinsic superiority.
It is thus different from legal fiction, by which a new rule is introduced surreptitiously, and under the pretence that no change has been made in the law, and from statutory legislation, in which the obligatory force of the rule is not supposed to depend upon its intrinsic fitness.
It is perhaps as much from the impulse which Ernesti gave to sacred and profane criticism in Germany, as from the intrinsic excellence of his own works in either department, that he must derive his reputation as a philologist or theologian.
Pledges were often made where the intrinsic value of the article was equivalent to the amount of the debt; but antichretic pledge was more common, where the profit of the pledge was a set-off against the interest of the debt.
It is this intrinsic power of fervent invocation and worship which found an early expression in the term brahma; and its independent existence as an active moral principle in shaping the destinies of man became recognized in the Vedic pantheon in the conception of a god Brihaspati or Brahmanaspati, " lord of prayer or devotion," the divine priest and the guardian of the pious worshipper.
In 1694 the apothecaries had increased from 114 to nearly 1000, and many of them, having acquired a knowledge of the uses of medicine, began to prescribe medicines for their customers and to assume the functions of the physician, who retorted in 1697 by establishing dispensaries, where medicines could be procured at their intrinsic value, or at cost price.
Some of his followers showed a tendency to look on geography rather as an auxiliary to history than as a study of intrinsic worth.
The importance of these principles lies not only in their intrinsic value as an ethical system, but also in the fact that they form the link between Socrates and the Stoics, between the essentially Greek philosophy of the 4th century B.C. and a system of thought which has exercised a profound and far-reaching influence on medieval and modern ethics.
In his eighteenth year, while still a student in Edinburgh, he contributed two valuable papers to the Transactions of the same society - one of which, " On the Equilibrium of Elastic Solids," is remarkable, not only on account of its intrinsic power and the youth of its author, but also because in it he laid the foundation of one of the most singular discoveries of his later life, the temporary double refraction produced in viscous liquids by shearing stress.
From the standpoint of the law of conservation of energy, the relation between chemical and thermochemical action bears the following aspect: - A given amount of any substance under given conditions possesses a perfectly definite amount of intrinsic energy, and, no matter what chemical and physical transformations the substance may undergo, it will, when it returns to its original state, possess the original amount of intrinsic energy.
If we consider now the transformation of one system of chemical substances into another system under specified conditions, we shall find that in general the intrinsic energy of the second system is different from the intrinsic energy of the first.
Let us assume, as is commonly the case, that the intrinsic energy of the initial system is greater than that of the final system.
The total thermal effect, too, which is associated with the transformation, must be the same, whether the transformation is conducted directly or indirectly (Hess's Law of Constant Heat Sums), since the thermal effect depends only on the intrinsic energies of the initial and final systems.
Since the intrinsic energy of a substance varies with the conditions under which the substance exists, it is necessary, before proceeding to the practical application of any of the laws mentioned above, accurately to specify the conditions of the initial and final systems, or at least to secure that they shall not vary in the operations considered.
It is also a necessary condition for the application of the preceding laws that no form of energy except heat and the intrinsic energy of the substances should be ultimately involved.
Here we have a different final system with a different amount of intrinsic energy, so that the thermal effect of the action is altogether different.
Like Berthelot, he writes the chemical equation of the reaction, but in addition he considers the chemical formula of each substance to express not only its material composition, but also the (unknown) value of its intrinsic energy.
He thus writes S+02=S02+7110o cal., which expresses the fact that the intrinsic energy of the quantities of sulphur and oxygen considered exceeds that of the sulphur dioxide derived from them by 71100 cal.
Expresses that under certain conditions the intrinsic energy of hydriodic acid is greater than the intrinsic energy of its component elements by 12200 cal., i.e.
Thus if we consider the energyequation C +02 = CO 2+943 00 cal., and replace the symbols by the values of the intrinsic energy, viz.
The blood is probably circulated by the general contraction of the whole animal, since it is very doubtful if there are any intrinsic muscles in the vessel-walls.
Of course only a few of the most prominent, either through the intrinsic merit of their work or through the influence they have had on that of their contemporaries, can be mentioned in a brief review like the present.
Which carries no more intrinsic weight than the Davidic titles of the Psalms. The poem begins with a prayer that God will renew the historic manifestation of the exodus, which inaugurated the national history and faith; a thunderstorm moving up from the south is then described, in which God is revealed (3-7); it is asked whether this manifestation, whose course is further described, is against nature only (8-ii); the answer is given that it is for the salvation of Israel against its wicked foes (12-15); the poet describes the effect in terror upon himself (16) and declares his confidence in God, even in utter agricultural adversity (17-19).
Cutting brings out the brilliancy of glass, which is one of its intrinsic qualities.
But not to speak of the intrinsic quality of histories of this kind (which may possibly even be of use to someone for something) the histories of culture, to which all general histories tend more and more to approximate, are significant from the fact that after seriously and minutely examining various religious, philosophic, and political doctrines as causes of events, as soon as they have to describe an actual historic event such as the campaign of 1812 for instance, they involuntarily describe it as resulting from an exercise of power--and say plainly that that was the result of Napoleon's will.