(1867), and for the history of the interpretations, C. D.
Several interpretations of the legend have been put forward by modern scholars.
It is possible that the story may originally have been connected with tree-worship. Here again, as in the case of Iasion, a conflict between an older and a younger cult seems to be alluded to (for the numerous interpretations see O.
Various interpretations have been given of the horse-headed form of the Black Demeter: (I) that the horse was one of the forms of the corn-spirit in ancient Greece; (2) that it was an animal " devoted " to the chthonian goddess; (3) that it is totemistic; (4) that the form was adopted from Poseidon Hippios, who is frequently associated with the earth-goddess and is said to have received the name Hippios first at Thelpusa, in order that Demeter might figure as the mother of Areion (for a discussion of the whole subject see Farnell, Cults, iii.
The bishops' Interpretations and Further Considerations, issued in 1560, tolerated a lower vestiarian standard than was prescribed by the rubric of 1559; the Advertisements, which Parker published in 1566, to check the Puritan descent, had to appear without specific royal sanction; and the Reformatio legum ecclesiasticarum, which Foxe published with Parker's approval, received neither royal, parliamentary nor synodical authorization.
In interpretations of Kowalevsky and Heider, and so on the whole do Orthoptera and Thysanura, as well as some others of the lower those of F.
Exegesis of this sort is not the characteristic of any single circle, people or century; unscientific methods of biblical interpretation have prevailed from Philo's treatment of the Pentateuch to modern apologetic interpretations of Genesis, ch.
He is not always very critical, and he is passionately fond of allegorical interpretations, but these were the faults of his age.
From the latter's time onward a host of liturgists took up the theme, arguing from the form, the material, the colour and the fashion of wearing the various garments to symbolical interpretations almost as numerous as the interpreters themselves.
" Take the amice, which signifies discipline in speech," while other interpretations survive in 1 In the Anglican Church, in the numerous cases when the liturgical colours are used, these generally follow the Roman use, which was in force before the Reformation in the important dioceses of Canterbury, York, London and Exeter.
These doctrinal interpretations introduce the economy of blinding the Jews into the parabolic teaching; the declaration as to the redemptive character of the Passion into the sayings; the sacramental, institutional words into the account of the Last Supper, originally, a solemnly simple Messianic meal; and the formal night-trial before Caiaphas into the original Passion-story with its informal, morning decision by Caiaphas, and its one solemn condemnation of Jesus, by Pilate.
The language of the reservation is open to more interpretations than one.
It would appear, however, as if at first at all events the persecution was directed not so much against the Biblical text itself as against the Lollard interpretations which accompanied it.
(1891); the various derivations of the name and interpretations of the legend are given in Enmann's article in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie.
During these years Venezuela had been pursuing the dangerous policy of granting interest guarantees on the construction of railways by foreign corporations, which not only brought the government into conflict with them on account of defaulted payments, but also through disputed interpretations of contracts and alleged arbitrary acts on the part of government officials.
Other interpretations have been put forward by F.
Sayce's phonetic values and interpretations of determinatives are his best assured achievements.
Both interpretations, " He (who) is (always the same)," and " He (who) is (absolutely, the truly existent)," import into the name all that they profess to find in it; the one, the religious faith in God's unchanging fidelity to his people, the other, a philosophical conception of absolute being which is foreign both to the meaning of the Hebrew verb and to the force of the tense employed.
Other interpretations are "posterity of God" or "his name (shemo; perhaps Yahweh's) is God."
In the modified Joule-Thomson equation (17), both c and n have simple theoretical interpretations, and it is possible to express the thermodynamical properties of the substance in terms of them by means of reasonably simple formulae.
Of the various interpretations of this, none is absolutely certain.
Yet besides the particular contribution that Aristotle made to idealistic philosophy in his logical and ethical interpretations, he advanced the case in two directions.
It is not here possible to do more than indicate what appear to be the valid elements in these two conflicting interpretations of the requirements of a true idealism.
In the regions where census tables and interpretations are derived from registration records kept by the several states or cities they are often made more complete than those in the state or municipal documents.
Most of these systems come into the category of occult pursuits, as they are the interpretations of phenomena on the ground of fanciful presumptions, by an appeal to unreal or at least unverifiable influences and relations.
Supernatural Religion (1874-1877; collected 1889) are often masterly conservative interpretations of the external evidence; but they leave this evidence still inconclusive, and the formidable contrary internal evidence remains practically untouched.
Both bodies of exposition represent the traditional principle at work in the sub-apostolic age, making for the preservation in relative purity, over against merely subjective interpretations - those of the Gnostics in particular - of the historic or original sense of Christ's teaching, just as Ignatius stood for the historicity of the facts of His earthly career in their plain, natural sense.
While the Austrian officials in Dalmatia, with hardly a pretence of concealment, were assisting the insurgents, Russian volunteers were flocking to Servia with the connivance of the Russian and Austrian governments, and General Ignatiev, as ambassador in 3 The names are vocalized to suggest the fanciful interpretations "victim" and "protection withheld."
Numerous indications accordingly point to a corresponding primitive zodiac. Setting aside as doubtful evidence derived from interpretations of cuneiform inscriptions, we meet, in connexion with Mithraic and Mylittic legends, reminiscences of a zodiac and religious calendar in which the Bull led the way.'
The philosophical works, occupying the first six and the last of the twenty-one volumes, are generally divided according to the Aristotelian scheme of the sciences, and consist of interpretations and condensations of Aristotle's relative works, with supplementary discussions depending on the questions then agitated, and occasionally divergences from the opinions of the master.
To the various unreal interpretations, and when the literal sense conflicted with the dogmas or tradition of the Church its validity was wholly denied.
With the above interpretations, cf.
Thus actual documents of native Aztec history, or copies of them, are still open to the study of scholars, while after the conquest interpretations of these were drawn up in writing by Spanish-educated Mexicans, and histories founded on them with the aid of traditional memory were written by Ixtilxochitl and Tezozomoc. In Central America the rows of complex hieroglyphs to be seen sculptured on the ruined temples probably served a similar purpose.
It should be added that what we know of Saka history is mostly derived from coins and inscriptions which admit of various interpretations and that scholars are by no means agreed as to" names and dates.
I, 2) upon the power of the Federal government to lay direct taxes has been interpreted by the Supreme Court, by a bare majority, in such a way as to make very difficult, if not impossible, the imposition of an income tax (although, it may be added, such taxes had been unanimously held constitutional by the court in earlier decisions, which rested in turn upon interpretations of the constitutional provision just referred to given by the court when it counted among its members justices who had been members of the convention that framed the constitution).
There is no mention of it in al-Anbari's work, and it is in itself somewhat improbable, as in al-Asma`i's time the schools of Kufa and Basra were in sharp opposition one to the other, and Ibn al-A`rabi in particular was in the habit of censuring al-Asma`i's interpretations of the ancient poems. It is scarcely likely that he would have accepted his rival's additions to the work of his step-father, and have handed them on to Abu `Ikrima with his annotations.
His exegesis, which was dominated by his polemics against the Jews, is characterized by a fidelity to the literal sense, the comparison with the Hebrew text, the direct use of Jewish commentators, a very independent attitude towards traditional interpretations, and a remarkable historical and critical sense.
But history repeats itself; and these same two interpretations of Kant had already been made in the lifetime of Kant by Fichte, in the two Introductions to the " Wissenschaftslehre," which he published in his Philosophical Journal in 1797.
The Edinburgh speech was again received with conflicting interpretations, and much discussion prevailed as to the conditions of the proposed conference, and as to whether it was or was not an advance, as the Chamberlainites claimed, towards Mr Chamberlain.
The understanding, however, between the two contracting parties was very far from being clear and complete, as each party still sought to attain its own aim by spreading in the Christian world divergent interpretations of the concordat and widely-differing plans for reducing it to its final form.
In 1563, and reorganized by Sixtus V.; its mission is to promote the observation of these disciplinary decrees, to give authoritative interpretations of them, and to reconcile disputes arising out of them.
At the end of 1794 he began to print his interpretations of prophecy, his first book being A Revealed Knowledge of the Prophecies and Times.
A few possible cases of aggressive mimicry are enumerated in the following summary of some of the recorded cases of mimicry in different classes of the animal kingdom; but the phenomenon is of comparatively rare occurrence, and the supposed instances may be susceptible of other interpretations, excluding them altogether from mimicry, or bringing them under the Batesian or Miillerian interpretation of the phenomenon.
One class of Abolitionists sought to evade the difficulty by strained interpretations of the clauses referred to, while others, admitting that they were immoral, felt themselves obliged, notwithstanding, to support the constitution in order to avoid what they thought would be still greater evils.
It is doubtless such explanations as these that the Greeks had in view when they praised the wisdom of the ancient Egyptians; and, in the classical period similar semi-philosophical interpretations altogether supplanted, among the learned at least, the naive literal beliefs of earlier times.
In 1841 and in 1842 she visited London, where her interpretations of Corneille and Racine were the sensation of the season.
On the other hand, dislike of mystical interpretations of natural facts has driven many capable naturalists to another extreme and has led them to insist on the "all-powerfulness of natural selection" and on the complete indefiniteness of variation.
These writings are remarkable for their intensely mystical and allegorical interpretations of the text.
Interpretations by the Fathers or by the councils are to be taken only as aids to its understanding.
This is possible to some because the situation in its sharp antithesis is not present to their minds: by making certain compromises on the one side and on the other, and by framing private interpretations of important dogmas, they can retain their faith in both and yet preserve their mental integrity.
Christianity has passed through too many changes, and it has found too many interpretations possible, to fear the time to come.
The use for which the pot was intended and the purport of the inscription have been much disputed, there being at least as many interpretations as there are words in the inscription.
The first name is that of Theagenes of Rhegium, contemporary of Cambyses (525 B.C.), who is said to have founded the " new grammar " (the older " grammar " being the art of reading and writing), and to have been the inventor of the allegorical interpretations by which it was sought to reconcile the Homeric mythology with the morality and speculative ideas of the 6th century B.C. The same attitude in the " ancient quarrel of poetry and philosophy " was soon afterwards taken by Anaxagoras; and after him by his pupil Metrodorus of Lampsacus, who explained away all the gods, and even the heroes, as elementary substances and forces (Agamemnon as the upper air, &c.).
Upon our choice between these two interpretations of the word depend important differences in any treatment of the subject.
Men bred in the cloister and the lecture-room of the logicians, trained in scholastic disputations, versed in allegorical interpretations of the plainest words and most apparent facts, could not find the key which might unlock those stores of wisdom and of beauty.
It is possible, therefore, that written works were in circulation among the learned, and that these contained varying interpretations which were likely to injure efforts to maintain a uniform Judaism.
Buchner was much less concerned to establish a scientific metaphysic than to protest against the romantic idealism of his predecessors and the theological interpretations of the universe.
Before Lightfoot's time commentaries, especially on the epistles, had not infrequently consisted either of short homilies on particular portions of the text, or of endeavours to enforce foregone conclusions, or of attempts to decide with infinite industry and ingenuity between the interpretations of former commentators.