Commentary on Aristotle's De Interpretatione crept vetas), ed.
In translations they had only the Categories and the De interpretatione of Aristotle in the versions of Boetius, the Timaeus of Plato in the version of Chalcidius, and Boetius's translation of Porphyry's Isagoge.
His favourite expression for the universal is "quod de pluribus natum est praedicari " (a translation of Aristotle, Dc interpretatione, 7), which would seem to point to a real or objective counterpart of the products of our thought; and the traditional definitions of Boetius, whom he frequently quotes, support the same view of the concept as gathered from a number of individuals in virtue of a real resemblance.
2.7rEpL `Epp7 7 vELas: De interpretatione: On language as expression of mind, and especially on the enunciation or assertion (Liirocbavacs h7roc/avTucos Xoyos) [rejected by Andronicus according to Alexander; but probably an early work of Aristotle, based on Plato's analysis of the sentence into noun and verb].
The different works are more or less connected by a system of references, which give rise to difficulties, especially when they are cross-references: for example, the Analytics and Topics quote one another: so do the Physics and the Metaphysics; the De Vita and De Respiratione and the De Partibus Animalium; this latter treatise and the De Animalium Incessu; the De Interpretatione and the De Anima.
So he might afterwards add the preface to the De Interpretatione, in order to connect it with the De Anima, though written afterwards, in order to connect his treatises on mind and on its expression.
On these principles, we regard as early genuine philosophical works of Aristotle, (I) the Categories; (2) the De Interpretatione; (3) the Eudemian Ethics and Magna Moralia; (4) the Rhetoric to Alexander.
- Another example of Aristotle's gradual desertion of Plato is exhibited by the De Interpretatione as compared with the Prior Analytics, and it shows another gradual history in Aristotle's philosophy, namely, the development of subject, predicate and copula, in his logic.
The short discourse on the expression of thought by language (irEpi `Epjs vElas, De Interpretatione) is based on the Platonic division of the sentence (X6yos) into noun and verb (ivoµa and Am).
Not in the De Interpretatione, but in the Prior Analytics.
This important difference between the De Interpretatione and the Prior Analytics can only be explained by supposing that the former is the earlier treatise.
Moreover we can make a history of Aristotle's thought and gradual composition thus: (s) Earlier acceptance in the De Interpretatione of Plato's grammatical analysis of the sentence into noun and verb (secundi adjacentis) but gradually disengaging the proposition, and after wards introducing the verb of being as a third thing added (tertium adjacens) to the predicated verb, for the purpose of opposition.
We cannot write a history of the varied origin of logic, beyond putting the rudimentary logic of the proposition in the De Interpretatione before the less rudimentary theory of categories as significant names capable of becoming predicates in the Categories, and before the maturer analysis of the syllogism in the Analytics.
The Categories earlier than some parts of the Metaphysics, because under the influence of Platonic forms it talks of inherent attributes, and allows secondary substances which are universal; the De Interpretatione earlier than the Analytics, because in it the Platonic analysis of the sentence into noun and verb is retained for the proposition; the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia earlier than the Nicomachean Ethics, because they are rudimentary sketches of it, and the one written rather in the theological spirit, the other rather in the dialectical style, of Plato; and the Rhetoric to Alexander earlier than the Rhetoric, because it contains a rudimentary theory of the rational evidences afterwards developed into a logic of rhetoric in the Rhetoric and Analytics.
Moreover, the arrangement sometimes breaks down: for example, though on the whole the logical books are quoted without quoting the rest, the De Interpretatione (chap. 1) quotes the De Anima, and therefore is falsely taken by Zeller against its own internal evidence to be subsequent to it and consequently to the other logical books.
6, 1096 b 30), in the De Interpretatione (5, 17 a 14); and in short throughout his extant works.
He got so far as gradually to write short discourses and long treatises, which we, not he, now arrange in the order of the Categories or names; the De Interpretatione on propositions; the Analytics, Prior on syllogism, Posterior on scientific syllogism; the Topics on dialectical syllogism; the Sophistici Elenchi on eristical or sophistical syllogism; and, except that he had hardly a logic of induction, he covered the ground.
Secondly, he made no division of logic. In the Categories he distinguished names and propositions for the sake of the classification of names; in the De Interpretatione he distinguished nouns and verbs from sentences with a view to the enunciative sentence: in the Analytics he analysed the syllogism into premisses and premisses into terms and copula, for the purpose of syllogism.
30, 46 a 30), or the De Interpretatione, which he calls " the present theory " (rf j s 'Dv Oecopias, De Int.
In fact, as to the Categories as well as the De Interpretatione, we are at a complete loss.
-Of the whole work of Pappus the best edition is that of Hultsch, bearing the title Pappi alexandrini collectionis quae supersunt e libris manuscriptis edidit latina interpretatione et commentariis instruxit Fridericus Hultsch (Berlin, 1876-1878).
His principal works were translations of the following portions of Aristotle,- Categoriae, De Interpretatione, Analytica Posteriora, Physica, De Caelo, De Anima, Metaphysica, Ethica Nicomachea, Politica; and an Expositio Ethicorum Aristotelis.
His commentaries on the Categories, De Interpretatione, De Sensu, and other works of Aristotle are frequently referred to by later writers, but have not come down to us.
The De Interpretatione, or the enumeration of conceptions and their combinations by (I) nouns and verbs (names), (2) enunciations (propositions); 3.
So in the Categories, he first divided things said 0ra XEy6 i 1Eva) into uncombined and combined, or names and propositions, and then divided the former into categories; and in the De interpretatione he expressly excluded mental conceptions and their combinations, and confined himself to nouns and verbs and enunciations, or, as we should say, to names and propositions.
In the De interpretatione, having distinguished the enunciation, or proposition, from other sentences as that in which there is truth or falsity, he relegated the rest to rhetoric or poetry, and founded the logic of the proposition, in which, however, he retained the grammatical analysis into noun and verb.
The De Interpretatione opens with a reference to this psychological distinction, implying that names represent conceptions, propositions represent combinations of conceptions.
In his commentary on the De Interpretatione, St Thomas, after citing from the De Anima Aristotle's " duplex operatio intellectus," said, " Additur autem et tertia operatio, scilicet ratiocinandi," and concluded that, since logic is a rational science (rationalis scientia), its consideration must be directed to all these operations of reason.
- As Aristotle remarked both in the De Interpretatione and in the Sophistici Elenchi, " not-being is thinkable " does not mean " not-being exists."
De Interpretatione 16a sqq.
Here then ' De Interpretatione 16a Ib.
(7) The brief tract De Interpretatione Naturae Sententiae Duodecim is evidently a first sketch of part of the Novum Organum, and in phraseology is almost identical with it.
Beside the theological and political works above quoted, Occam wrote Summa Logices (Paris, 1488, Oxford, 1675) commentaries on Porphyry's Isagoge, on the Categoriae, De Interpretatione and Elenchi of Aristotle.
He is said to have written also on the De coelo and the De interpretatione of Aristotle and on Plato's Timaeus.