Intermolecular transformations-migrations of substituent groups from one carbon atom to anotherare of fairly common occurrence among oxy compounds at elevated temperatures.
It is necessary, therefore, to avoid reactions involving such intermolecular migrations when determining the orientation of aromatic compounds.
It seems that intermolecular change also occurs, but further research is necessary before a sound theory can be stated.
While very many coloured substances must obviously contain this grouping, yet in many cases it is necessary to assume a simple intermolecular change, while in others a more complex rearrangement of bonds is necessary.
Armstrong, on the other hand, assumed an intermolecular change, thus: - ?
He suggests that the term " quinone " theory be abandoned, and replaced by the Umlagerungs theory, since this term implies some intermolecular rearrangement, and does not connote simply benzenoid compounds as does " quinonoid."
The solution dilute enough) for the intermolecular forces between the dissolved particles to be inappreciable.
The forces between the ions of a strongly dissociated solution will thus be considerable at a dilution which makes forces between undissociated molecules quite insensible, and at the concentrations necessary to test Ostwald's formula an electrolyte will be far from dilute in the thermodynamic sense of the term, which implies no appreciable intermolecular or interionic forces.
The width of the gap may be diminished until it is no greater than the distance between two neighbouring molecules, when it will cease to be distinguishable, but, assuming the molecular theory of magnetism to be true, the above statement will still hold good for the intermolecular gap. The same pressure P will be exerted across any imaginary section of a magnetized rod, the stress being sustained by the intermolecular springs, whatever their physical nature may be, to which the elasticity of the metal is due.
In terms of the molecular theory this indicates that the total energy of the gas is the sum of the separate energies of its different molecules: the potential energy arising from intermolecular forces between pairs of molecules may be treated as negligible when the matter is in the gaseous state.