Cardium belongs to the order of Lamellibranchia in which the gills present the maximum of complexity, the original vertical filaments of which they are composed being united by interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions.
Complications follow upon this in other forms. Even in Mytilus and Arca a connexion is here and there formed between the ascending and descending rami of a filament by hollow extensible outgrowths called " interlamellar junctions " (il.
Classification Of Lamellibranchia The classification originally based on the structure of the gills by P. Pelseneer included five orders, viz.: the Protobranchia in which the gill-filaments are flattened and not reflected; the Filibranchia in which the filaments are long and reflected, with non-vascular junctions; the Pseudo-lamellibranchia in which the gill-lamellae are vertically folded, the interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions being vascular or non-vascular; the Eulamellibranchia in which the interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions are vascular; and lastly the Septibranchia in which the gills are reduced to a horizontal paltition.
Surface of gills smooth, gill-filaments all similar, with interlamellar junctions.
Gills without interlamellar junctions.
Branchial filaments united by vascular interfilamentar junctions and vascular interlamellar junctions; the latter contain the afferent vessels.