Thus for the 7th, 14th, 21 st, 28th and also the 19th days of the intercalary Elul it is prescribed that "the shepherd of many nations is not to eat meat roast with fire nor any food cooked by fire, he is not to change the clothes on his body nor put on gala dress, he may not bring sacrifices nor may the king ride in his chariot, he is not to hold court nor may the priest seek an oracle for him in the sanctuary, no physician may attend the sick room, the day is not favourable for invoking curses, but at night the king may bring his gift into the presence of Marduk and Ishtar.
The observance of such days was a bar to attending even to important diplomatic business or setting out on a journey Such nubattu days fell on the 3rd, 7th and 16th of the intercalary month of Elul, and were noted as the nubattu of Marduk and his consort.
31 Possibly the intercalary month was abnormal, the incidence of observances depending not on the day of the month in ordinary months but on the day of the week reckoned consecutively through the year.
In the Laminariaceae this tissue is formed by cell division at what is called an -intercalary growing point, i.e.
The growth of the leaf is at first apical, but this is not very prolonged, and the subsequent enlargement is due to an intercalary growing region near the base.
Besides Sundays there are six great feasts: (1) that of the New Year (Nauruz rabba), on the first day of the first month of winter; (2) Dehwa h' nina, the anniversary of the happy return of Hibil Ziva from the kingdom of darkness into that of light, lasting five days, beginning with the 18th of the first month of spring; (3) the Marwana, in commemoration of the drowned Egyptians, on the first day of the seoond month of spring; (4) the great five days' baptismal festival (pantsha), the chief feast, kept on the five intercalary days at the end of the second month of summer - during its continuance every Mandaean, male .and female, must dress in white and bathe thrice daily; (5) Dehwa d'daimana, in honour of one of the three hundred and sixty `Uthras, on the first day of the second month of autumn; (6) Kanshe Zahla, the preparation feast, held on the last day of the year.
The year is solar, and has twelve months of thirty days each, with five intercalary days between the eighth and the ninth month.
Behind the antennal (or deutocerebral) segment an "intercalary " or tritocerebral segment has been demonstrated by W.
All of these are to be regarded as primitively post-oral, but in the course of development the mouth moves back to the mandibular segment, so that the first three somitesocular, antennal and intercalary - lie in front of it.
17), is the mouth or oral piece; the second, explained by the presence of a " latent endoderm-group " in those the antennal segment; the third, the intercalary or prae-mandibular invaginations.
The intercalary segment has no appendages, nor rudiments thereof, except, according to H.
In the tradition was also preserved the text of the epistles regarding the insertion of the intercalary month, which he sent to the inhabitants of Galilee and the Darom (i.e.
The ancient Egyptian year consisted of 365 days; but after the introduction of the Julian calendar, the astronomers of Alexandria adopted an intercalary year, and added six additional days instead of five to the end of the last month of every fourth year.
The Egyptian intercalary year, however, does not correspond to the Julian leap year, but is the year immediately preceding; and the intercalation takes place at the end of the year, or on the 29th of August.
Hence the first three years of the Egyptian intercalary period begin on the 29th of our August, and the fourth begins on the 30th of that month.
In intercalary years the first seven months commence one day later.
Since the epoch is the 9th of July, there were 176 days from the beginning of the Armenian era to the end of the year J52 of our era; and since 552 was a leap year, the year 553 began a Julian intercalary period.
The intercalary period is 33 years, - one day being added to the common year seven times successively at the end of four years, and the eighth intercalation being deferred till the end of the fifth year.
The five additional days (in intercalary years six) are named Musteraca.
From the same period also they have employed, in the adjustment of their solar and lunar years, a period of nineteen years, twelve of which are common, containing twelve lunations each, and the remaining seven intercalary, containing thirteen lunations.
It must happen sometimes that in the course of a lunation the sun enters into no new sign; in this case the month is intercalary, and is called by the same name as the preceding month.
The moons of the civil year are also distinguished by their place in the cycle of sixty; and as the intercalary moons are not reckoned, for the reason before stated, namely, that during one of these lunations the sun enters into no new sign, there are only twelve regular moons in a year, so that the cycle is renewed every five years.
The Mayas had a calendar of 360 days, with intercalary days; this solar year was intersected by their sacred year of twenty weeks of thirteen days each, and these assembled in bewildering cycles.
Date of the Flood) =86,400 weeks (1656=72X23; and 23 years being =8395 days+5 intercalary days =8400 days = 1200 weeks); and hence the inference has been drawn that the two periods have in some way been developed from a common basis, the Hebrews taking as their unit a week, where the Babylonians took a lustrum of 5 years.
This Differed From The Solar Year By Ten Whole Days And A Fraction; But, To Restore The Coincidence, Numa Ordered An Additional Or Intercalary Month To Be Inserted Every Second Year Between The 23Rd And 24Th Of February, Consisting Of Twenty Two And Twenty Three Days Alternately, So That Four Years Contained 1465 Days, And The Mean Length Of The Year Was Consequently 3664 Days.
As The Error Amounted To Twentyfour Days In As Many Years, It Was Ordered That Every Third Period Of Eight Years, Instead Of Containing Four Intercalary Months, Amounting In All To Ninety Days, Should Contain Only Three Of Those Months, Consisting Of Twenty Two Days Each.
Not Even Appear That The Length Of The Intercalary Month Was Regulated By Any Certain Principle, For A Discretionary Power Was Left With The Pontiffs, To Whom The Care Of The Calendar Was Committed, To Intercalate More Or Fewer Days According As The Year Was Found To Differ More Or Less From The Celestial Motions.
By Giving A Greater Or Less Number Of Days To The Intercalary Month, The Pontiffs Were Enabled To Prolong The Term Of A Magistracy Or Hasten The Annual Elections; And So Little Care Had Been Taken To Regulate The Year, That, At The Time Of Julius Caesar, The Civil Equinox Differed From The Astronomical By Three Months, So That The Winter Months Were Carried Back Into Autumn And The Autumnal Into Summer.
In Order To Put An End To The Disorders Arising From The Negligence Or Ignorance Of The Pontiffs, Caesar Abolished The Use Of The Lunar Year And The Intercalary Month, And Regulated The Civil Year Entirely By The Sun.
The Intercalary Month Of Twenty Three Days Fell Into The Year Of Course, So That The Ancient Year Of 355 Days Received An Augmentation Of Ninety Days; And The Year On That Occasion Contained In All 445 Days.
February Having Then Twenty Nine Days, The 25Th Was The 6Th Of The Calends Of March, Sexto Calendas; The Preceding, Which Was The Additional Or Intercalary Day, Was Called Bis Sexto Calendas, Hence The Term Bissextile, Which Is Still Employed To Distinguish The Year Of 366 Days.
In The Modern Calendar The Intercalary Day Is Still Added To February, Not, However, Between The 24Th And 25Th, But As The 29Th.
The Second, ?9, Gives Seven Intercalary Days In Twenty Nine Years, And Errs In Defect, As It Supposes A Year Of 365 Days 5 Hours 47 Min.
It Was Therefore Proposed To Employ A Period Of 160 Years, In Which One Of The Intercalary Months Should Be Omitted; But As This Period Was Too Long To Be Of Any Practical Use, It Was Never Generally Adopted.
The Number Of Years In The Intercalary Period Being Four, And The Days Of The Week Being Seven, Their Product Is 4 X 7 = 28; Twenty Eight Years Is Therefore A Period Which Includes All The Possible Combinations Of The Days Of The Week With The Commencement Of The Year.
In The Reformed Calendar The Intercalary Period Is Four Hundred Years, Which Number Being Multiplied By Seven, Gives Two Thousand Eight Hundred Years As The Interval In Which The Coincidence Is Restored Between The Days Of The Year And The Days Of The Week.
The lunations are supposed to consist of twenty-nine and thirty days alternately, or the lunar year of 354 days; and in order to make up nineteen solar years, six embolismic or intercalary months, of thirty days each, are introduced in the course of the cycle, and one of twenty-nine days is added at the end.
The Restoration Of The Equinox To Its Former Place In The Year And The Correction Of The Intercalary Period, Were Attended With No Difficulty; But Lilius Had Also To Adapt The Lunar Year To The New Rule Of Intercalation.
Another Addition Of Eleven Gives Thirty Three For The Epact Of The Fourth Year; But In Consequence Of The Insertion Of The Intercalary Month In Each Third Year Of The Lunar Cycle, This Epact Is Reduced To Three.
The Reason Of This Is, That The Intercalary Month, Inserted At The End Of The Cycle, Contains Only Twenty Nine Days Instead Of Thirty; Whence, After 11 Has Been Added To The Epact Of The Year Corresponding To The Golden Number 19, We Must Reject Twenty Nine Instead Of Thirty, In Order To Have The Epact Of The Succeeding Year; Or, Which Comes To The Same Thing, We Must Add Twelve To The Epact Of The Last Year Of The Cycle, And Then Reject Thirty As Before.
The Solar Equation Occurs Three Times In 400 Years, Namely, In Every Secular Year Which Is Not A Leap Year; For In This Case The Omission Of The Intercalary Day Causes The New Moons To Arrive One Day Later In All The Following Months, So That The Moon'S Age At The End Of The Month Is One Day Less Than It Would Have Been If The Intercalation Had Been Made, And The Epacts Must Accordingly Be All Diminished By Unity.
In That Year The Omission Of The Intercalary Day Rendered It Necessary To Diminish The Epacts By Unity, Or To Pass To The Line C. In 1800 The Solar Equation Again Occurred, In Consequence Of Which It Was Necessary To Descend One Line To Have The Epacts Diminished By Unity; But In This Year The Lunar Equation Also Occurred, The Anticipation Of The New Moons Having Amounted To A Day; The New Moons Accordingly Happened A Day Earlier, Which Rendered It Necessary To Take The Epacts In The Next Higher Line.
In Order To Adapt It To The Gregorian Calendar, We Must First Add The To Days That Were Left Out Of The Year 1582; In The Second Place We Must Add One Day For Every Century That Has Elapsed Since 1600, In Consequence Of The Secular Suppression Of The Intercalary Day; And Lastly We Must Deduct The Units Contained In A Fourth Of The Same Number, Because Every Fourth Centesimal Year Is Still A Leap Year.Q Denoting, Therefore, The Number Of The Century (Or The Date After The Two Right Hand Digits Have Been Struck Out) By C, The Value Of L Must Be Increased By 10 (C 16) (6 C L = 7M 3 X (4 X) W Io (C 16) (C 4 16) W; That Is, Since 3 To =13 Or 6 (The 7 Days Being Rejected, As They Do Not Affect The Value Of L), L=7M 6 X () W _ 16) (_ L _ 6)W; This Formula Is Perfectly General, And Easily Calculated.
The Intercalary Month, Veadar, Is Introduced In Embolismic Years In Order That Passover, The 15Th Day Of Nisan, May Be Kept At Its Proper Season, Which Is The Full Moon Of The Vernal Equinox, Or That Which Takes Place After The Sun Has Entered The Sign Aries.
They Are Also Partitioned Into Cycles Of 30 Years, 19 Of Which Are Common Years Of 354 Days Each, And The Other Ii Are Intercalary Years Having An Additional Day Appended To The Last Month.
To Find If A Year Is Intercalary Or Common, Divide It By 30; The Quotient Will Be The Number Of Completed Cycles And The Remainder Will Be The Year Of The Current Cycle; If This Last Be One Of The Numbers 2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 18, 21, 24, 26, 29, The Year Is Intercalary And Consists Of 355 Days; If It Be Any Other Number, The Year Is Ordinary.
Or If Y Denote The Number Of The Mahommedan Year, And R (Iiy 14H / 30 R' The Year Is Intercalary When R < 1 1.
Also The Number Of Intercalary Years From The Year 1 Up To The Year Y Inclusive = (11 Y?
The Errors Have Probably Arisen From A Continued Excess Of 10 In The Discrimination Of The Intercalary Years.
The intercalary years of the cycle are distinguished by an asterisk.