The final breakdown of scholasticism as a rationalized system of dogma may be seen in Nicolas (or Nicolaus) of Cusa (1401-1464), who distinguishes between the intellectus and the discursively acting ratio almost precisely in the style of later distinctions between the reason and the understanding.
Leibnitz's principle of the " nisi intellectus ipse " was expanded by him into a demon stration the completest yet effected by philosophy of the part played by the subject not merely in the manipulation of the material of experience but in the actual constitution of the object that is known.
The highest faculty of man, reason, intellectus, intellectualis visio, is that which is not content with the individual or partial, but grasps the whole and thereby comprehends the parts.
In man, as the noblest of created things, the Trinity is seen most perfectly reflected; intellectus (vous), ratio (X6yos) and sensus (& ivota) make up the threefold thread of his being.
In his commentary on the De Interpretatione, St Thomas, after citing from the De Anima Aristotle's " duplex operatio intellectus," said, " Additur autem et tertia operatio, scilicet ratiocinandi," and concluded that, since logic is a rational science (rationalis scientia), its consideration must be directed to all these operations of reason.
If Alexander is responsible for such doctrines as that of the intellectus acquisitus, it is to Porphyry, with his characteristically Platonist preference for the doctrine of universals, and for classification, that we owe the scholastic preoccupation with the realist controversy, and with the quinque votes, i.e.
The invaluable tractate De Intellectus emendatione, in which the agreement with and divergence from Descartes on the question of method could have been fully elucidated, is unhappily not finished.
From one of Oldenburg's early letters we learn that the treatise De intellectus emendation was probably Spinoza's first occupation at Rhijnsburg.
- The contents of the Opera posthuma included the Ethics, the Tractatus politicos and the De intellectus emendatione (the last two unfinished), a selection from Spinoza's correspondence, and a Compendium of Hebrew Grammar.
Elwes, appeared in 1883, and translations of the Ethics and the De intellectus emendatione were published in 1883 and 1895 by W.