As a consequence of these insanitary conditions the death-rate is very high, and in case of epidemics the mortality is enormous.
The climate is good and the coast is swept by cool ocean breezes, the average temperatures ranging from 65° to 77° F., but notwithstanding this, Callao has a bad reputation for fevers and contagious diseases, chiefly because of its insanitary condition.
A few old Turkish houses, built of plaster, with red-tiled roofs, are left among the ill-paved and insanitary districts bordering upon the rivers, but as the royal residence, the seat of government, and the centre of the import trade, Belgrade was, after 1869, III.
Equally it must be concluded that the weakness and degradation produced by semi-starvation and insanitary conditions of life are only an effect on the individual and cannot affect the stock.
North of the cemetery is the prison, a building which replaces a notoriously insanitary gaol used during the republican regime.
Yet within recent years great alterations have been effected; in the newer quarters are several handsome streets and public buildings; in the centre many insanitary dwellings have been swept away, and their place occupied by imposing blocks of shops and business premises, and a magnificent new town-hall, erected in a dominant position.
The city is built in a bowllike depression of the great central plateau, and the drainage from the surrounding hillsides has produced a dangerously insanitary condition, from which one or two virulent fever epidemics have resulted.
These improvements connote the obliteration of the insanitary and overcrowded courts and alleys which were to be found between all the main streets, few in number, connecting the upper and the lower towns.
This school used to occupy part of the old abbey of the Cambre, situated in a hollow near the bois and the avenue Louise, but owing to its insanitary position it has been removed to a new building near the Cinquantenaire.
But the unhealthiness of Rio de Janeiro in past years may be charged to insanitary conditions and not to the climate.
That the silkworm is subject to many serious diseases is only to be expected of a creature which for upwards of 4000 years has been propagated under purely artificial conditions, and these most frequently of a very insanitary nature, and where, not the healthy life of the insect, but the amount of silk it could be made to yield, was the object of the cultivator.
In consequence of its insanitary condition, Cairo used to have a heavy death-rate.
The diseases from which Egyptians suffer are very largely the result of insanitary surroundings.
The great fire of 1896 destroyed a large part of the old town, and some of its insanitary conditions were improved in rebuilding.
The words " dirt " and " insanitary conditions " are much used, but such general terms explain nothing.
Singapore, where plague has several times been introduced, but never taken hold, is probably quite as dirty and insanitary as Hong-Kong, and it is pertinently remarked by the Bombay Research Committee that filth per se has but little influence, inasmuch as " there occurred in the House of Correction at Byculla, where cleanliness is brought as near to perfection as is attainable, an outbreak which exceeded in severity that in any of the filthy thaw's and tenements around."
This unfavourable state of affairs is due to the poverty, ignorance and insanitary habits of the lower classes.
This consists mainly of land acquired under an Inclosure Act of 1761, but a small part is surplus land acquired in1876-1879in connexion with an improvement scheme for clearing a large insanitary area in the centre of the town.
The objection to the insanitary effect of the meter-payment system has, in some places, been sought to be removed by providing a fixed quantity of water, assumed to be sufficient, as the supply for a fixed minimum payment, and by using the meter records simply for the purpose of determining what additional payment, if any, becomes due from the water tenant.
If these conditions are complied with, it is probable that the total rate of supply will not exceed, even if it reaches, the rate necessary in any system, not being an oppressive and insanitary system, by which the water is paid for according to the quantity used.