One, the " upper " or ex-umbral nervering, is derived from the ectoderm on the ex-umbral side of the velum; it is the larger of the two rings, containing more numerous but smaller ganglioncells, and innervates the tentacles.
The last nerve which contributes to the ischiadic plexus leaves the spinal column in most birds either between the two primary sacral vertebrae, or just below the hindmost of them, and sends a branch to the pubic portion which is composed of post-ischiadic nerves, partly imbedded in the kidneys, and innervates the ventral muscles between the tail and pubis, together with those of the cloaca and copulatory organs.
At the posterior end of the body there are likewise seven separate ganglia partially fused to form a single ganglionic mass, which innervates the segments lying behind the anus and corresponding to the posterior sucker.
The brain innervates the eyes and feelers, and must be regarded as a " syncerebrum " representing the ganglia of the three foremost limb-bearing somites united with the primitive cephalic lobes.
Anteriorly these chords embrace the oesophagus and unite with the cerebral mass which innervates the pair of eyes when present.
These muscles exhibit a certain constant condition of slight contraction, which disappears on severance of the nerve that innervates the muscle.