By the peace of Zapoli (January 15th, 1582) he surrendered Livonia with Polotsk to Bathory, and by the truce of Ilyusa he at the same time abandoned Ingria to the Swedes.
During a halt of a few days in Poland on his way back from Vienna, King Augustus had explained to him a project for partitioning the transBaltic provinces of Sweden, by which Poland should recover Livonia and annex Esthonia, Russia should obtain Ingria and Karelia, and Denmark should take possession of Holstein.
By that treaty Peter acquired not only Ingria and Karelia, as originally contemplated, but also Livonia, Esthonia and part of Finland.
From 1709 to 1714 he served during the Courland, Holstein and Pomeranian campaigns, but then, as governor-general of Ingria, 'with almost unlimited powers, was entrusted with a leading part in the civil administration.
Charles's "immersion in the Polish bog" (1702-1707), as Peter phrased it, enabled the tsar, not without considerable expense and trouble, to conquer Ingria and lay the foundations of St Petersburg.
His first plan was a combination against her of Saxony, Denmark and Brandenburg; but, Brandenburg failing him, he was obliged very unwillingly to admit Russia into the partnership. The tsar was to be content with Ingria and Esthonia, while Augustus was to take Livonia, nominally as a fief of Poland, but really as an hereditary possession of the Saxon house.
The hostility of Poland and the break up of Russia involved him in two overseas contests for the possession of Livonia and Ingria, while his pretensions to Lapland brought upon him a war with Denmark in the last year of his reign.
27, 1617), the tsar surrendered to the Swedish king the provinces of Kexholm and Ingria, including the fortress of NOteborg (the modern Schliisselburg), the key of Finland.
Denmark was also compelled to recognize, practically, the independence of the dukes of HolsteinGottorp. The Russian War was terminated by the Peace of Kardis (July 2, 1661), confirmatory of the Peace of Stolbova, whereby the tsar surrendered to Sweden all his Baltic provinces - Ingria, Esthonia and Kexholm.
Moreover, two of Sweden's Baltic provinces, Esthonia and Ingria, had been seized by the tsar, and a third, Livonia, had been.
By the peace of Nystad Sweden ceded to Russia Ingria and Esthonia, Livonia, the Finnish province of Kexholm and the fortress of Viborg.