Forging proceeds by beating or squeezing the piece under treatment from its initial into its final shape, as for instance by hammering a square ingot or bloom first on one corner and then on another until it is reduced to a cylindrical shape as shown at A in fig.
The interior surface of a blowhole which lies near the outer crust of the ingot, as at A in fig.
The specific gravity of zinc cannot be expected to be perfectly constant; according to Karsten, that of pure ingot is 6.915, and rises to 7.191 after rolling.
Ingot iron is slagless steel with less than 0.30% of carbon.
Long, can roll an ingot 4 ft.
After this the metal is allowed to rest for a time in the pot at a temperature above its freezing point and is then ladled out into ingot forms, care being taken at each stage to ladle off the top stratum.
Thus, for instance, chemically pure iron in the ingot has the specific gravity 7.844; when it is rolled out into thin sheet, the value falls to 7.6; when drawn into thin wire, to 7.75.
30, and nearly the whole of the ingot would be unsound.
An ingot of tin is pure white (except for a slight tinge of blue); the colour depends, however, upon the temperature at which it is poured - if too low, the surface is dull, if too high, iridescent.
Antimony, bismuth and zinc exhibit a very distinct crystalline structure: a bar-shaped ingot readily breaks, and the crystal faces are distinctly visible on the fracture.
As each retort in a furnace is in all essentials a separate crucible, and as the metal from only a few of them goes into a single ingot, there can be no uniformity either in the ingots made from the same furnace during a day's run or in those made from several furnaces treating the same ore.
Some brassfounders break from a single ingot the quantity of zinc required to produce the amount of brass they wish to compound in one crucible, but when perfect uniformity is desired the importance of remelting the zinc on a large scale cannot be too strongly emphasized.
If zinc be cast into a mould at a red heat, the ingot produced is laminar and brittle; if cast at just the fusing-point, it is granular and sufficiently ductile to be rolled into sheet at the ordinary temperature.
We then extract one ingot after another at successively lower temperatures and chill each ingot by dropping it into water or by some other method of very rapid cooling.
The chilling stereotypes the structure existing in the ingot at the moment it was withdrawn from the furnace, and we can af terwards study this structure by means of the microscope.
The two principal processes utilized in making calcium carbide by electrical power are the ingot process and the tapping process.
An ingot gradually builds up from the bottom of the crucible, the carbon electrode being raised from time to time automatically or by hand to suit the diminution of resistance due to the shortening of the arc by the rising ingot.
The crucible is of metal and considerably larger than the ingot, the latter being surrounded by a mass of unreduced material which protects the crucible from the intense heat.
When the ingot has been made and the crucible is full, the latter is withdrawn and another substituted.
Pure crystalline calcium carbide yields 5.8 cubic feet of acetylene per pound at ordinary temperatures, but the carbide as sold commercially, being a mixture of the pure crystalline material with the crust which in the electric furnace surrounds the ingot, yields at the best 5 cubic feet of gas per pound under proper conditions of generation.
It is found that the ingot of calcium carbide formed in the furnace, although itself consisting of pure crystalline calcium carbide, is nearly always surrounded by a crust which contains a certain proportion of imperfectly converted constituents, and therefore gives a lower yield of acetylene than the carbide itself.
The run carbide, however, is never so rich as the ingot carbide, since an excess of lime is nearly always used in the mixture to act as a flux, and this remaining in the carbide lowers its gasyielding power.
Ingot metal or mild steel was sometimes treacherous when first introduced, and accidents occurred, the causes of which were obscure.
This was cast into an oblong ingot, 1 to 12 in.
It was then left to cool, and after being thoroughly cleansed presented the appearance of a copper ingot with one silver side.
Adds enough carbon to give it the content desired, and then immediately pours the steel into a great claylined casting ladle by turning the converter over, and through a nozzle in the bottom of this ladle pours the steel into its ingot moulds.
Moreover, since the mould acts as a covering to retard the loss of heat, it should not be removed from the ingot until just before the latter is to be placed in its soaking furnace.
In this system there is for each ingot and each mould only one handling in which it is moved as a separate unit, the mould from one train to the other, the ingot from its train into the furnace.
Here each mould and each ingot was handled as a separate unit twice, instead of only once as in the car casting system; the ingots radiated away great quantities of heat in passing naked from the converting mill to the soaking furnaces, and the heat which they and the moulds radiated while in the converting mill was not only wasted, but made this mill, open-doored as it was, so intolerably hot, that the cost of labour there was materially increased.
- In an early period of the solidification of a molten steel ingot cast in a cold iron mould we may distinguish three parts: (1) the outer layers, i.e.
Because this pipe is due to the difference in the rates of contraction of interior and exterior, it may be lessened by retarding the cooling of the mass as a whole, and it may be prevented from stretching down deep by retarding the solidification of the upper part of the ingot, as, for instance, by preheating the top of the mould, or by covering the ingot with a mass of burning fuel or of molten slag.
An ingot should always stand upright while solidifying, so that the unsound region due to the pipe may readily be cut off, leaving the rest of the ingot solid.
If the ingot lay on its side while solidifying, the pipe would occur as shown in fig.
- Diagram showing a Pipe so formed as to render Ingot unsound.
- The solidification of an ingot of steel takes place gradually from without inwards, and each layer in solidifying tends to expel into the still molten interior the impurities which it contains, especially the carbon, phosphorus, and sulphur, which by this process are in part concentrated or segregated in the last-freezing part of the ingot.
The second is by casting it into a large rough block called an " ingot," and rolling or hammering this out into the desired shape.
- When the outer crust of a large ingot in which a lot of molten steel has been cast has so far cooled that it can be moved without breaking, the temperature of the interior is still far above that suitable for rolling or hammering - so far above that the surplus heat of the interior would more than suffice to reheat the now cool crust to the rolling temperature, if we could only arrest or even greatly retard the further escape of heat from that crust.
Bringing such an ingot, then, to the rolling temperature is not really an operation of heating, because its average temperature is already above the rolling temperature, but one of equalizing the temperature, by allowing the internal excess of heat to " soak " through the mass.
Gjers did this by setting the partly solidified ingot in a well-closed " pit " of brickwork, preheated by the excess heat of previous lots of ingots.
31, has three advantages - (1) that the temperature is adjusted with absolutely no consumption of fuel; (2) that the waste of iron due to the oxidation of the outer crust of the ingot is very slight, because the little atmospheric oxygen initially in the pit is not renewed, whereas in a common heating furnace the flame brings a constant fresh supply of oxygen; and (3) that the ingot remains upright during solidification, so that its pipe is concentrated at one end and is thus removable.
During all the latter part of the heating, when the temperature of the ingot has approached that of the flame, only an ever smaller and smaller part of the heat of that flame can be absorbed by the ingots.
Or smaller, drawn down from a bloom, ingot, or pile for further manufacture.
Great armour plates can indeed be made by rolling, because in making such flat plates the ingot is simply rolled back and forth between a pair of plain cylindrical rolls, like BB of fig.
As the ingot is reduced in section, it is of course lengthened proportionally.
Khatzidakis found there three large houses, each with some twenty rooms and upper storeys, and a unique collection of bronzes, an ingot, some enormous cauldrons, and a statu ette of a praying man.
This is the case with gold, silver, copper, tin, lead and others, and especially with low carbon steel, which is first cast as an ingot, then annealed and rolled into plates as well as the thinnest sheets.
Steel intended for castings has slightly more carbon and other elements than the cast-steel ingot intended for rolling into plates.
Alloys prepared in this way, and known as phosphor bronze, may contain only about 1% of phosphorus in the ingot, reduced to a mere trace after casting, but their value is nevertheless enhanced for purposes in which a hard strong metal is required, as for pump plungers, valves, the bushes of bearings, &c. Bronze again is improved by the presence of manganese in small quantity, and various grades of manganese bronze, in some of which there is little or no tin but a considerable percentage of zinc, are extensively used in mechanical engineering.
The specific gravity is 11 352 for ingot, and from 11.354 to II '365 for sheet lead (water of 4°C. = 1).
A tin ingot is distinctly crystalline; hence the characteristic crackling noise, or "cry" of tin, which a bar of tin gives out when being bent.
Bottom of ingot, forged and annealed, magnified 29 diameters.
From bottom of ingot as cast, magnified 2g diameters.
From top of ingot as cast, magnified 29 diameters.
Top of ingot, forged and annealed, magnified 2 9 diameters.
Ingot steel is slagless steel containing more than 0.30% of carbon.