This resulted in an inflammation of the upper membrane of the brain, delirium and death.
Discovery in these various directions then led physicians to regard fever and inflammation not as separable entities, but as fluctuating symptomgroups, due to swervings of function from the normal balance under contingent forces.
The bestknown parts of Boerhaave's system are his doctrines of inflammation, obstruction and "plethora.
The great danger is that, as the blood in the vessels becomes thawed, there will be so much reactionary flow through the tissues that acute inflammation will follow.
Thus it came about not only that classifications of disease based on superficial likeness - such as jaundice, dropsy, inflammation - were broken up, and their parts redistributed, but also that even more set diseases began to lose their settlements, and were recognized as terms of series, as transitory or culminating phases of perturbations which might be traced to their origins, and in their earlier stages perhaps withstood.
Meanwhile Cohnheim and Metchnikoff were engaged in destroying the ontological conception not of fever only, but also of inflammation, of which, as a local event, an ontological conception was no less strongly implanted.
Various morbid conditions of the body generally may give rise to different symptoms. Thus a gouty condition may manifest itself in one man as eczema of the skin, giving rise to redness and intense itching; in another as neuralgia, causing most severe pain; in a third as bronchitis, producing a distressing cough; in a fourth as dyspepsia, giving rise to flatulence and intestinal disturbance; and in a fifth as inflammation of the great toe, accompanied by redness, swelling and pain.
He appears to have leaned to mechanical explanations of the symptoms of disease, as was especially the case with inflammation, of which he gave the first rational, though necessarily inadequate, theory.
Broussais's chief aim was to find an anatomical basis for all diseases, but he is especially known for his attempt to explain all fevers as a consequence of irritation or inflammation of the intestinal canal (gastroenterite).
Acute inflammation of the ear, with its alarming extensions to the cerebral.
He shows no inconsiderable knowledge of anatomy in his remarkable description of inflammation and abscess of the mediastinum in his own person, and its diagnosis from common pleuritis as well as from abscess and dropsy of the pericardium.
The urine is nevertheless small in amount and contains albumen and blood owing to the local inflammation produced in the kidney by the passage of the poison through that organ.
The treatment of inflammation of mucous membrane is based upon the same principles as inflammation of the skin, and there too we usually associate means (I) for removing microbes, (2) for destroying them, (3) for lessening the irritation they produce, and (4) for repairing any mischief they have done.
His feverish state and the inflammation of his bowels, which were injured, were in the doctor's opinion sure to carry him off.
Yet, although, as Andral and other French physicians proved, it was extravagant to say that all fevers take their origin from some local inflammation, it was true and most useful to insist, as Broussais vehemently insisted, that "fever" is no substance, but a generalization drawn from symptoms common to many and various diseases springing from many various and often local causes; from causes agreeing perhaps only in the factor of elevation of the temperature of the body.
If present in large numbers they may give rise to obstruction of the liver-ducts or to inflammation of other tissues.
The production of pearls by oysters and mussels is common knowledge, but it is only recently that the origin of pearls has been traced and admitted to be due to inflammation set up by a parasite.
A fragment thrown on the surface of water rapidly disengages hydrogen, which gas, however, does not inflame, as happens with potassium; but inflammation occurs if hot water be used, or if the metal be dropped on moist filter paper.
Inflammation of the Liver (hepatitis) may also be caused by an attack of micro-organisms which have reached it through the veins coming from the large intestine, or through the main arteries.
In other cases gall-stones set up irritation in the gall-bladder which runs on to inflammation, and the gall-bladder being infected by septic germs from the intestine (bacilli coli) an abscess forms.
In 1882 he had another serious illness, with inflammation of the brain; but he recovered sufficiently to travel to his old haunts in France and Italy - his last visit.
Other subjects on which he published papers were the inflammation of turpentine and other essential oils by nitric acid, and the methods of embalmment practised by the Egyptians.
This may occur suddenly, as when the resistance is increased in the arterial system by a e on f sudden exertion or strain, and more slowly when the resistance is increased in the pulmonary circulation of the by inflammation of the respiratory passages.
Thus carbolic acid or carbolized ammonia are sniffed into the nose to destroy the microbes there, or the nose is washed out by an antiseptic solution as a nasal douche; bismuth or morphine are insufflated, or zinc ointment is applied, to cover the mucous membrane, and protect it from further irritation; and various antiseptic gargles, paints and powders applied to the pharynx in order to prevent the microbic inflammation from extending to the pharynx and down the trachea and bronchi, for many a severe bronchitis begins first by sneezing and nasal irritation.
A portion of the body may die in consequence of the disturbance of its nutrition by inflammation, or of a cutting off of the bloodsupply, as by pressure upon, or injury to, the blood-vessels.
We do not now concur with the old view that inflammation was essentially an injurious process; rather do we look upon it as beneficial to the organism.
Medicine and surgery are but two aspects of one art; Pasteur shed light on both surgery and medicine, and when Lister, his disciple, penetrated into the secrets of wound fevers and septicaemia, he illuminated surgery and medicine alike, and, in the one sphere as in the other, co-operated in the destruction of the idea of "essential fevers" and of inflammation as an "entity."
The new fibrous tissue which is developed throughout the liver, as the result of the chronic inflammation, causes general enlargement of the liver with, perhaps, nausea, vomiting and jaundice.
He demonstrated the presence of the bacilli in the sputa, and showed that the inflammation in the lungs was set up by primary plague infection.
Blisters also cause local dilatation of vessels, but are usually applied to the skin for inflammation in deep-seated parts, such as the lungs, though they also relieve pain in the joints in acute rheumatism.
Where there has been local mischief due to inflammation the dead leucocytes must be removed, and this is done either by their being converted into pus in one mass, and making their way through the tissues to the nearest surface, whether of skin or mucous membrane, from which it can be discharged, or they may undergo a process of fatty degeneration and absorption, leaving behind in some cases cheesy matter, in others hard connective tissue.
The reason of this appears to he that the diplococcus is frequently present in the mouth or air-passages without giving rise to any symptoms; but when the patient is exposed to chill, and the tissues of the respiratory passages are thereby weakened, the diplococcus grows, multiplies and gives rise to inflammation of the lungs.
Both inflammation and fever are protective processes calculated to defend the organism against the attacks of microbes.
But when the irritation is situated in the skin itself, as in eczema, the scratching tends to increase inflammation, and makes the irritation worse.
In the same way, the reflex act of coughing is useful in removing either foreign bodies or excessive secretion from the air passages; but when the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract is irritated and inflamed, it produces a feeling of tickling and a desire to cough sometimes very violently; yet the coughing simply tends to exhaust the patient, because there is really little or nothing to bring up. The same is the case in inflammation of the lung substance itself.
In inflammation of the stomach also such continuous vomiting occasionally occurs that the patient's life is in danger by his inability to retain food; and similar danger also occurs from inflammation of the intestines and consequent diarrhoea.
But by the addition of some antiseptic to the ointment its defensive action would be converted from passive to active, and its power to prevent infection would become greater; and if inflammation had already set up in the skin, the addition of opium, belladonna, or cocaine would lessen local pain; and an astringent, either metallic or organic, would restrain inflammation and accelerate repair.
When the true skin is inflamed various appearances may arise, according to the intensity and extent of the inflammation, and the eruption may be papular, vesicular, pustular, tubercular, bulbous or ulcerative.
For inflammation of the mouth a similar combination is used as a mouth wash, in the throat as a gargle, and in the nose as a wash and sometimes as an ointment or spray, the ointment possessing the advantage of protecting the delicate nasal mucous membrane from irritation by stopping the entrance of irritant dust into the nasal cavities.
This latter cause is chiefly observed when the tissues are of a very unyielding character; for example, when the inflammation occurs in a bone or under a thick fibrous and unyielding membrane.
Thus when inflammation occurs in the finger, as in a whitlow, the pain is not only constantly severe, but it is increased by every pulsation of the heart, and thus has a throbbing character.
The reason probably is that the application of cold causes contraction of the arteries leading to the inflamed part, while heat by dilating the vessels around forms a side channel through which the blood passes, the tension in the seat of inflammation being thus lessened in both cases.