Chauveau points to the reduction in the 12-hour term as compared to the 24-hour term on the Eiffel Tower, and infers the practical disappearance of the former at no great height.
He infers, from these facts, that there is no sure evidence for the authorship of the fourth and fifth treatises.
The author of 2 Maccabees infers from his success that the nation had forfeited all right to divine protection for the time (2 Macc. v.
From this he infers that cyanogen is C: N N :C and not N; C C; N, that hydrocyanic acid is HC N, and acetonitrile CH 3 C; N.
On many grounds Cohn infers a Hebrew original.
Similarly the Armenian writer Gregory Magistros (c. 1040) accuses the Thonraki of teaching that "Moses saw not God, but the devil," and infers thence that they held Satan to be creator of heaven and earth, as well as of mankind.
As probably the protein constituent varies in the different organs, one infers that this will account for the varying results got from the analysis of the substance obtained from different organs in such cases.
70 sqq., who from philological and other data infers the late date of the introduction of incense into the Jewish ritual.
These, Swete holds, "create a strong presumption of affinity" between the two books, while Bousset infers that they "justify the assumption that the entire circle of Johannine writings spring from circles which stood under the influence of the John of Asia Minor."
It follows from Quesnay's theoretic views that the one thing deserving the solicitude of the practical economist and the statesman is the increase of the net product; and he infers also what Smith afterwards affirmed, on not quite the same ground, that the interest of the landowner is "strictly and indissolubly connected with the general interest of the society."
One naturally infers from this that the "cherub" was sometimes viewed as a bird.
25 infers from the unusual form of the word "it," that the prohibition of iron applies only to it, i.e.
Or he might return again and again to the same point with a difference: there is a good instance in his conclusion that the speculative life is the highest happiness; which he first infers because it is the life of man's highest and divine faculty, intelligence (1176 b-1 178 a 8), then after an interval infers a second time because our speculative life is an imitation of that of God (1178 b 7-32), and finally after another interval infers a third time, because it will make man most dear to God (1179 a 22-32).
In order to acquire the knowledge of the true and primary principles of scientific knowledge, and especially the intelligence of the universal essence of the subject, which is always true, the process of knowledge consists of (I) sense (a'lcO o s), which receives the essence as individual, (2) memory (uvi j), which is a retention of sensible impression, (3) experience (cµirecpia),which consists of a number of similar memories, (4) induction (brayw-y), which infers the universal as a fact (TO iTC), (5) intellect (vas), which apprehends the principle (apxit); because it is a true apprehension that the universal induced is the very essence and formal cause of the subject: thereupon, scientific syllogism (i rcnf µovucos vvXXoycvµos), making the definition (opeg ios) of this essence the middle term (TO, c Vov), becomes a demonstration (6.7rOSee es) of the consequences which follow from the essence in the conclusion.
Wundt, in consequence, thinking with Kant that apperception is a spontaneous activity, and with Fichte that this activity requires will, and indeed that all activity is will, infers that apperception is inner will.
Secondly, when Wundt comes to the psychical, he naturally infers from his narrow Kantian definition of substance that there is no proof of a substrate over and above all mental operations, and falsely thinks that he has proved that there is no substance mentally operating in the Aristotelian sense.
As the same limit is applied by him to all transcendent rational " ideals," and especially to those which refer to the content of the notion of the world, and, like all psychological and ontological "ideals," belong to the imaginary transcendent, his conclusion is that reason, in transcending experience, logically conceives " ideals," but never logically infers corresponding realities.
When Green said that " Nature is the system of related appearances, and related appearances are impossible apart from the action of an intelligence," he was speaking as a pure Kantian, who could be answered only by the Aristotelian position that Nature consists of related bodies beyond appearances, and by the realistic supposition that there, , h is a tactical sense of related bodies, of the inter-resisting members of the organism, from which reason infers similar related bodies beyond sense.
He infers the corollary that universal experience contains the same duality of subjective and objective factors without dualism.
He infers that force, being active, is psychical - a force, which he describes as " idee-force," and as " vouloir-vivre."
Finally, as touch perceives reciprocal pressure within, and tactile inference infers it without, touch is the primary evidence of the senses which is the foundation and logical ground of our belief in Nature as a system of pressing bodies.
Pointing out that the sophists of that dialogue " profess Eis ap€riffs E7rt,u XELav 7rporpNiaL by means of dialogue," that ' they challenge the interlocutor inr w Xoyov," that " their examples are drawn from common objects and vulgar trades," that " they maintain positions that we know to have been held by Megarians and Cynics," he infers that " what we have here presented to us as ' sophistic ' is neither more nor less than a caricature of the Megarian logic "; and further, on the ground that " the whole conception of Socrates and his effect on his contemporaries, as all authorities combine to represent it, requires us to assume that his manner of discourse was quite novel, that no one before had systematically attempted to show men their ignorance of what they believed themselves to know," he is " disposed to think that the art of disputation which is ascribed to sophists in the Euthydemus and the Sophistes (and exhaustively analysed by Aristotle in the HEpi originated entirely with Socrates, and that he is altogether responsible for the form at least of this second species of sophistic."
Wolfius infers from this passage that its author was the first actual constructor of a telescope, and it appears not improbable that by happy accident Porta really did make some primitive form of telescope which excited the wonder of his friends.
Some empiricists, on the other hand, suppose that induction only infers probable conclusions which are premises of probable deductions; but they give up all exact science.
Man so infers at first: otherwise we cannot explain the actions of young children, who before they begin to speak give no evidence of universal thinking.
R9) with a detailed system of empiricism, according to which sense is the primary knowledge of particulars, memory is the retention of a sensation, experience is the sum of many memories, induction infers universals, and intelligence is the true apprehension of the universal principles of science, which is rational, deductive, demonstrative, from empirical principles.
So far as it depends on memory, an inferential judgment presupposes memorial ideas in its data; and so far as it infers universal classes and laws, it produces general ideas.
Sigwart does not indeed shrink from this and greater absurdities; he reduces the first figure to the modus ponens and the second to the modus tollens of the hypothetical syllogism, and then, finding no place for the third figure, denies that it can infer necessity; whereas it really infers the necessary consequence of particular conclusions.
A deduction is often like an induction, in inferring from particulars; the difference is that deduction combines a law in the major with the particulars in the minor premise, and infers syllogistically that the particulars of the minor have the predicate of the major premise, whereas induction uses the particulars simply as instances to generalize a law.
Hence the fallacy of those who, like Bosanquet, or like Paulsen in his Einleitung in die Philosophie, represent the realistic theory of inference as if it meant that knowledge starts from ideas and then infers that ideas are copies of things, and who then object, rightly enough, that we could not in that case compare the copy with the original, but only be able to infer from idea to idea.
We observe, however, that Paley's method is often mixed with reasonings that belong to an alien and older manner of thought; as when he supports the claim of the poor to charity by referring to the intention of mankind "when they agreed to a separation of the common fund," or when he infers that monogamy is a part of the divine design from the equal numbers of males and females born.
Basing his conclusions upon philological data, such as the names of wheat in the oldest known languages, the writings of the most ancient historians, and the observations of botanical travellers, De Candolle infers that the hdistromeib u a n d original home of the wheat plant was in Mesopotamia, don.
From a psychological point of view divinatory methods may be classified under two main heads: (A) autoscopic, which depend simply on some change in the consciousness of the soothsayer; (B) heteroscopic, in which he looks outside himself for guidance and perhaps infers rather than divines in the proper sense.
Malcolm infers that he died a natural death, but wheni or where is not stated.
714 to a friend who had sent him a series of questions about the "Persian sage," confesses ignorance of his name, home and rank, but infers from his homilies that he was a monk, and of high esteem among the clergy.
Thirdly, the induction is amiss which infers the principles of sciences by simple enumeration, and does not, as it ought, employ exclusions and solutions (or separations) of nature.
And as Cyzicus was settled from Miletus, he infers that both sets of stories must be comparatively late.
Not just where they have been, but where they have been more than once, from which the system reasonably infers they like the place.
The system has data from all their GPS records and infers that to drive across town several times for a place is a stronger vote than eating at the corner restaurant.