Does experience furnish any probable reason for inferring that immortality is a fact?
Moreover, it is transferred in the same irresistible way: frequently we cannot help either feeling pressure, or remembering it, or inferring it; and as there are involuntary sensation and attention, so there are involuntary memory and inference.
A deduction is often like an induction, in inferring from particulars; the difference is that deduction combines a law in the major with the particulars in the minor premise, and infers syllogistically that the particulars of the minor have the predicate of the major premise, whereas induction uses the particulars simply as instances to generalize a law.
Moreover, we have good reasons for inferring that different constellations of external causes may determine whether the internal physiological disturbances induced by a given agent shall lead to pathological and dangerous variations, or to changes which may be harmless or even advantageous to the plant concerned.
We never know anything except as determined by its attributes; but that would not prevent us from inferring something determined as unconditioned, whether infinite or absolute.
But even Sigwart's errors are outdone by Lotze, who not only reduces " Every NI is P " so " If S is M, S is P," but proceeds to reduce this hypothetical to the disjunctive, " If S is NI, S is P L or P 2 or 1 33, " and finds fault with the Aristotelian syllogism because it contents itself with inferring " S is P " without showing what P. Now there are occasions when we want to reason in this disjunctive manner, to consider whether S is I n or P 2 or P 3, and to conclude that " S is a particular P "; but ordinarily all we want to know is that " S is P "; e.g.
He seeks to show not onl y that the difficulties in the systems of natural and revealed religion have counterparts in nature, but also that the facts of nature, far from being adverse to the principles of religion, are a distinct ground for inferring their probable truth.
Even C. Gore, The Church and the Ministry (1889), pp. 119 ff., while inferring a sacerdotal element in Irenaeus's conception of the episcopate, says: "But it is mainly as preserving the catholic traditions that Irenaeus regards the apostolic succession" (p. 120).
The paradox of the arrow (7), says Mr Russell, is a plain statement of a very elementary fact: the arrow is at rest at very moment of its flight: Zeno's only mistake was in inferring (if he did infer) that it was therefore at the same point at one moment as at another.
A further ground for inferring a Hebrew original is to be found in the fact that paronomasiae not infrequently discover themselves in the course of retranslation into Hebrew.
But we know also that the patents were so numerous as to be oppressive, and we can scarcely avoid inferring that Bacon more readily saw the advantages to the government than the disadvantages to the people.
We may commence by dealing with the sun as we find it at the present moment, and thence inferring what must have been the progress of events in the earlier epochs of the history of our system.
His strong point consists in inferring the fact of evolution of some sort from the consideration of the evidence of comparative anatomy, palaeontology and embryology.
Hume saw that in making all the objects of perception ideas Berkeley had given as little reason for inferring substantial souls as substantial bodies.
He carried metaphysical idealism to its height, by not only resolving the bodily into the mental, but also elevating the action of mind into absolute mental construction; not inferring things in themselves beyond, but originating things from within, mind itself.
But to make such a conversion from phenomenalism plausible, it is necessary to be silent about his whole psychology, logic, and epistemology, and the consequent limitation of knowledge to experience, and of reason to ideas and " ideals," without any power of inferring corresponding things.