Thus true hereditary infection of a succeeding generation of gnats may be brought about.
In other cases the infection of the first host is brought about by the ingestion FIG.
Of such are tetanus and diphtheria, now known to be due to the establishment from without of a local microbic infection, from which focus a toxin is diffused to the nervous matter.
Thus the liability to tubercular infection is far commoner in the midst of a depraved population than in one fulfilling the primary laws of nature; rickets is a disease of great cities rather than of rural districts; and syphilis is more disastrous and protracted in its course in the depraved in health than in the robust.
This reveals a quite novel mode by which infection with a Trypanosome may be brought about; so far, however, T.
In 1900-1901 Major Walter Reed (1851-1902), a surgeon in the United States army, proved by experiments on voluntary human subjects that the infection was spread by the Stegomyia mosquito,' and the prevention of the disease was then undertaken by Major William C. Gorgas - all patients being screened and mosquitoes practically exterminated.'
It is regarded by the Turks as specially valuable, inasmuch as it is said to be incapable of transmitting infection as the pipe passes from mouth to mouth.
Another paroxysm begins at or near the same hour next day (quotidian ague), which results from a double tertian infection, or the interval may be fortyeight hours (tertian ague), or seventy-two hours (quartan ague).
Short of suppressing mosquitoes, the parasitic cycle may theoretically be broken by preventing them from giving the infection to man or taking it from him.
The Cuban coast was uninterruptedly full of infection, and the danger of an outbreak in each year was never absent, until the work of the United States army in 1901-1902 conclusively proved that this disease, though ineradicable by the most extreme sanitary measures, based on the accepted theory of its origin as a filth-disease, could be eradicated entirely by removing the possibility of inoculation by the Stegomyia mosquito.
By means of " vaccination " we are enabled to induce an active immunity against infection by certain pathogenic bacteria.
In a very short period - within three or four hours after infection - there appears to have been a message conveyed to the defenders of the body both as to the point of attack and the nature of the invasion.
We have learned that "constitutional" causes play a smaller part in them than was supposed, that a large number of diseases of the skin, even if initiated by general disorder, are or soon become local diseases, being, if not initiated by local infection yet perpetuated thereby, so that, generally speaking, they are to be cured by local means.
Infantile diarrhoea has also been recognized as a common infection (Ballard), and the means of its avoidance and cure ascertained.
In 1866 a second centre of infection made its appearance near Bordeaux.
In the one case they are entirely restricted to the neighbourhood of the boil or ulcer, whereas in the other there is a general infection of the body, the organisms spreading to all parts and being met with in the spleen, liver, bone-marrow, &c., and (rarely) in the peripheral circulation.
Nevertheless the resemblance between the biology of this organism in relation to syphilis (as regards mode of infection, habitat, &c.) and that of Trypanosoma equiperdum, the cause of dourine or " horse-syphilis," may not be without significance.
The area of infection increased rapidly, and with that the demand for healthy graine correspondingly expanded, while the supply had to be drawn from increasingly remote and contracted regions.
In other species the infection occurs through the style of the flower, but the fungus after reaching the ovule develops no further during that year but remains dormant in the embryo of the seed.
When the sporidia infect a plant the mycelium so produced gives origin to aecidiospores and spermatia; the aecidiospores on infection produce a mycelium which bears uredospores and later teleutospores.
Similar gradations are observed in the direct effect of the parasite on the host, which may be local (Hemileia) when the mycelium never extends far from the point of infection, or general (Phytophthora) when it runs throughout the plant.
Carter (U.S. Marine Hospital Service) that although the incubation of the disease was 5 days, 15 to 20 days had to elapse before the "infection" of the house, and from Ross's demonstration of the part played in malaria by the Anopheles.
Plague was recognized at Hong Kong in May 1894, and there can be little doubt that it was imported from Canton, where a violent outbreak-said to have caused ioo,000 deaths-was in progress a few months earlier, being part of an extensive wave of infection which is believed to have come originally out of the province of Yunnan, one of the recognized endemic centres, and to have invaded a large number of places in that part of China, including Pakhoi and other seaports.
It was only at the close of the 19th century that the true cause of malariathe conveyance of the infection by the bite of the Malaria..
Influenza, again, was well known to us in 1836-1840, yet clinical observers had not traced out those sequels which, in the form of neuritis and mental disorder, have impressed upon our minds the persistent virulence of this infection, and the manifold forms of its activity.
The result is that, both in physicians and in the public, a more hopeful attitude in respect of the cure of phthisis has led to a more earnest grappling with the infection in its earliest stages and in every phase, with a correspondingly large improvement in prevention and treatment.
On April 11, 1582, the lords of the council wrote to the lord mayor to the effect that, as " her Majesty sometimes took delight in those pastimes, it had been thought not unfit, having regard to the season of the year and the clearance of the city from infection, to allow of certain companies of players in London, partly that they might thereby xvi.
The Elasmobranchs swallow infected molluscs or fish; pike and trout devour smaller fry; birds pick up sticklebacks, insects and worms which contain Cestode larvae; and man lays himself open to infection by eating the uncooked or partially prepared flesh of many animals.
The fact of this increased leucocytic activity during the early stages, or the whole course of infection by Cestodes, is indirect proof that these parasites do normally discharge toxic substances into their hosts.
The first of these is prevalent in countries where much and imperfectly cooked beef is eaten, and where cattle in their turn are exposed to the infection of the tapeworm ova.
The questions naturally suggest themselves - Are the reappearances due to a revival of the contagion derived from previous outbreaks in the same place, or to some favouring condition which the place offers for the development of infection derived from some other quarter; and have favouring conditions any dependence upon the character and state of the soil?
Simpson in his Report on the Causes of the Plague in Hong Kong (1903) reports the endemicity of the plague in that colony to be maintained by (a) infection among rats often connected with infectious material in rat runs or in houses, the virus of which has not been destroyed, (b) retention of infection in houses which are rat-ridden, and (c) infected clothing of people who have been ill or died of plague.
To return to Bombay and 1896: the infection spread gradually and slowly at first, but during the first three months of 1897 not only was the town of Bombay severely affected, but district after district in the presidency was attacked, notably Poona, Karachi, Cutch Mandvi, Bhiwandi and Daman.
Barisch was shown to have been careless in the performance of his duties, and to have disregarded instructions; and the inference is that he conveyed the infection to his mouth, and so to the lungs, from the bacteriological specimens or inoculated animals.
The infection is supposed to have been brought from Noumea, in New Caledonia, where it was present at the end of 1899; and the medical authorities believe that the first case, which occurred on the 19th of January, was recognized.
In spite of the ring-fence of censors, and custom-house officers, there was danger Metier- of the Liberal infection spreading to Austria, with nich and disintegrating results; and the pose of the tsar as~ the con- protector of German liberties was a perpetual menace.
For the sick there are the Connaught Hospital in the Marlborough Lines, the Cambridge Hospital in Stanhope Lines, and the Union Hospital in Wellington Lines, besides the Louise Margaret Hospital for women and children and the isolated infection hospital.
With the melting of the ice the more daring spirits dashed into the new current with such ardour that for them all traditions, all institutions, were thrown into hotchpot; even elderly and sober physicians took enough of the infection to liberate their minds, and, in the field of the several diseases and in that of post-mortem pathology, the hollowness of classification by superficial resemblance, the transitoriness of forms, and the flow of processes, broke upon the view.
Thus, much of infection and immunity are proving to be but special cases of digestion, and teleological conceptions of protective processes are modified.
By embolism is meant the more or less sudden stoppage of a vessel by a plug of solid matter carried thither by the current of the blood; be it a little clot from the heart or, what is far more pernicious, an infective fragment from some focus of infection in the body, by which messengers new foci of infection may be scattered about the body.
When, for instance, the cause of septic infection had been revealed, the prophylaxis of the disease became a possibility.
The particles in this case set up a form of fibrosis of the lung, which, either of itself or by rendering the organ liable to tubercular infection, is extremely fatal.