Again, several species of this order have become profoundly modified in form in imitation of inedible beetles.
Finally, the likeness of an edible species to a warningly coloured inedible one in the same locality is termed " pseudaposematic," in allusion to the pretentiousness or falsity of the warning signal.
In the majority of cases both model and mimic belong alike to the Lepidoptera, and it is often uncertain whether both are inedible (Mullerian mimicry) or whether inedibility is the attribute only of the model (Batesian mimicry).
In the Philippine Islands several species of Longicorns of the genus Doliops mimic hard inedible weevils (Curculionidae) of the genus Pachyrhynchus.
In the Philippines, a cricket (Scepastus pachyrhynchoides), has taken on the shape and coloration of a species of Apocyrtus, a hard and inedible weevil (Curculionidae); and Phoraspis, a kind of grasshopper similarly resembles ladybirds (Coccinellidae).
Another instance of mimicry affecting the larval form is supplied by the moth Endromis versicolor, the caterpillars of which resemble the inedible larvae of saw-flies.
The males of the other subspecies are much like the males of antinorii; but the females are widely different and mimic various species of inedible butterflies belonging to the protected groups of the Danainae and Acraeinae.
But if it be discovered, as is possible, that the drone-fly is also inedible, the mimicry must be ascribed to the Mullerian category, and the reason for it becomes less evident.
The same explanation no doubt applies to the mimicry, both in Borneo and South Africa, of hairy bees of the family Xylocopidae by Asilid flies of the genus Hyperechia, and also to other cases of mimicry of Hymenoptera as well as of inedible beetles of the family Lycidae by Diptera.
The mimicry of these insects therefore is synaposematic; but some, at all events, of the flies like the Bombylid Exoprosopa umbrosa, probably form pseudaposematic elements in the group. Into another category Hymenoptera enter not as models but as mimics, the models being inedible Malacodermatous beetles mostly belonging to the genus Lycus and characterized by orange coloration set off by a large black patch upon the posterior end of the elytra and a smaller black spot upon the thorax.
This may, however, be an instance of Miillerian rather than of Batesian mimicry, the beetle being itself inedible; for Shelford has stated his conviction that the Bornean representatives of the sub-family (Clytinae), to which Clytus arietis belongs, are all highly distasteful and are warningly coloured, as are members of this sub-family from other parts of the world.