Many of the great industries of the country, e.g.
Iron.The iron-mines of France are more numerous than its coalmines, but they do not yield a sufficient quantity of ore for the needs of the metallurgical industries of the country; as will be seen in the table below the production of iron in France gradually increased during the 19th century; on the other hand, a decline in prices operated against a correspondingly marked increase in its annual value.
In 1849 exclusive Moravian control of Salem's industries and trades was abolished; in 1856 land was first sold to others than Moravians, and in the same year the town was incorporated.
Gold is found throughout Australia, and the present prosperity of the states is largely due to the discoveries of this metal, the development of other industries being, in a country of varied resources, a natural sequence to the acquisition of mineral treasure.
Owing to its position the city enjoys a considerable transit trade with Portugal; its other industries include the manufacture of linen, woollen and leather goods, and of pottery.
There are extensive collieries, and the other industries include cotton manufactures, calico-printing, hat-making, iron-founding, engineering and the manufacture of firebricks and tiles.
The leading industries are limeworks and distilleries, the water being specially fitted for the making of whisky.
The industries are equal in importance to the transit trade, and embrace metalworking, ironfounding and machine building, the manufacture of electric plant, celluloid, automobiles, furniture, cables and chemicals, sugar refining, cigar and tobacco making, and brewing.
The industries include cotton-spinning, weaving, nail-making and oilworks, and there are frequent markets for cattle and sheep. Lanark is a place of considerable antiquity.
Its industries include quarrying and malting, and the manufacture of sugar and machinery.
Selby is the centre of a rich agricultural district, and its industries include rope and twine making, flax-scutching, boatbuilding, iron-founding, tanning and brewing.
Holstein, Jersey and other well-known dairy breeds were imported for the new industries of butterand cheese-making.
The pastoral and agricultural industries have been hampered by fluctuations in the value of the currency, farm products being sold at a gold value for the equivalent in paper, while labourers are paid in currency.
The lack of coal in Argentina greatly increases the difficulty and cost of maintaining these industries, and high prices of the products result.
Recovery required years, although made easier by the sound and steady development of the pastoral and agricultural industries, which were slightly affected by the crisis; and the steadily increasing volume of exports, mainly foodstuffs and other staples, saved the situation.
The typically industrial region of France is the department of Nord, the seat of the woollen industry, but also prominently concerned in other textile industries, in metal working, and in a variety of other manufactures, fuel for which is supplied by its coal-fields.
Occupations.The following table, which shows the approximate numbers of persons engaged in the various manufacturing industries of France, who number in all about 5,820,000, indicates their relative importance from the point of view of employment:
In fact, everywhere the demand for goods, especially of those for domestic consumption, fell away; and there was a reduction in the average number of persons employed in the manufacturing industries to the extent of more than 20%.
The institute comprises an academic department (in which all students are enrolled) with a seven years' course, the Phelps Hall bible training school (1892), with a three years' course, and departments of mechanical industries, industries for girls, and agriculture.
Stuttgart is the centre of the publishing trade of south Germany, and it has busy industries in everything connected with the production of books.
Albany has several flourishing industries, of which the chief are brewing, coach-building, printing and tanning.
There are a number of small manufacturing industries in Cuzco, including the manufacture of cotton and woollen fabrics, leather, beer, embroidery and articles of gold and silver.
It is only necessary to bear in mind the great part played by sterilization in the laboratory, and pasteurization on the fermentation industries and in the preservation of food materials.
This discovery was of great importance to the zymo-technical industries, for it showed that bacteria are not the only undesirable organisms which may occur in yeast.
In the zymo-technical industries the various species of yeast exhibit different actions during fermentations.
The subsidiary industries, such as the manufacture of machinery and wire fabric, are of considerable importance.
Other leading industries are hosiery, tanning (with the largest yards in Scotland), dyeing, iron and brass founding, engineering and boot-making.
A great variety of industries is carried on, the chief being the manufacture of semolina and other farinaceous foods, confectionery, preserved fruit and jams, chemicals and rubber goods.
The industries of the town include manufactures of cotton, silk, earthenware, machinery and tobacco, with brass and iron founding; while slate and stone are quarried, and there are coal, iron and lead mines in the neighbourhood.
With the development of cotton and silk industries the town has increased enormously, and is now second in importance only to Derby among the towns of the county.
The native industries are inconsiderable, and many of them are in a languishing condition.
The opening of the railway enabled it to compete successfully with Alicante, and revived the mining and metallurgical industries, while considerable sums were expended on bringing the coast and land defences up to date, and adding new quays, docks and other harbour works.
It has iron foundries, machinery factories, railway workshops and a considerable trade in cattle, and among its other industries are weaving and malting and the manufacture of cloth.
The public buildings include the town hall, court house and orphan hospital; and the industries are mainly connected with the cattle trade and the distilling of whisky.
The natives have several industries, including pottery, straw plaiting, smithwork and woodcarving.
Local industries include the manufacture of coarse cloth, esparto fabrics, oil and flour.
Dairy industries have rapidly increased in value: in 1905 the value of butter and cheese was $6,416,434, more than any other single industry under the census classification.
Puenteareas is the chief town of a fertile hilly region, which produces wine, grain and fruit, and contains many cattle farms. The industries of the town itself are porcelain manufactures, tanning and distilling.
The cultivation of vines had also increased, and wine industries had been initiated, chiefly in Tashkent and Samarkand.
Forty different industries are taught.
Up to 1889 wages held their ground, although work had become more difficult to obtain, and some industries were being carried on without any profit.
Towards the en._ cf October 20,000 shearers were called out, and many other trades, principally concerned with the handling or shipping of wool, joined the ranks of the strikers, with the result that the maritime and pastoral industries throughout the whole of Australia were most injuriously disturbed.