Pierre Huber's Traite des mceurs des fourmis indigenes (Geneve, 1810) is the most famous of the older memoirs.
In 1824 the settled indigenes had to pay the very heavy rate of 11 roubles (about 1) per head, and the arrears, which soon became equal to the sums levied, were rigorously exacted.
For ethnology consult Coutumes indigenes de la Cote d'Ivoire (Paris, 1902) by F.
A later investigator, Don Francisco Belmar (Lenguas indigenes de Mexico, Mexico, 1905), has been able to reduce these numerous idioms to a very few groups.
Apart from these polar nomads, the American indigenes group roughly into a single division of mankind, of course with local variations.
Alexander von Humboldt's Vues des Cordilleres et monuments des peuples indigenes de l'Amerique was published in Paris in 1816.
In the northern peninsula are found people of Papuan type, probably representing the aborigines, and a tribe around Galela, who are Polynesian in physique, possibly remnants, much mixed by subsequent crossings with the Papuan indigenes, of the Caucasian hordes emigrating in prehistoric times across the Pacific. M.
It is settled by experience that the most numerous and well-known crossed races, such as the Mulattos, descended from Europeans and Negroes - the Mestizos, from Europeans and American indigenes - the Zambos, from these American indigenes and Negroes, &c., are permanently fertile.
It has been argued, on the other hand, that not all such mixed breeds are permanent, and especially that the cross between Europeans and Australian indigenes is almost sterile; but this assertion, when examined with the care demanded by its bearing on the general question of hybridity, has distinctly broken down.