Apart from these, there were three well-defined parties: (1) those with Presbyterian ideas and s y mpathies, a great majority; (2) Erastians, ably represented and led by Selden, Lightfoot and Coleman; (3) Independents, ten or eleven in number, led by Philip Nye, and assured of Cromwell's support.
Following the lead of the Independents, who set up Mansfield College at Oxford, the Presbyterian Church has founded Westminster College at Cambridge as a substitute for its Theological Hall in London.
The contention brought to a crisis the struggle between the moderate Presbyterians and the Scots on the one side, who decided to maintain the monarchy and fought for an accommodation and to establish Presbyterianism in England, and on the other the republicans who would be satisfied with nothing less than the complete overthrow of the king, and the Independents who regarded the establishment of Presbyterianism as an evil almost as great as that of the Church of England.
On the 25th of November Cromwell charged Manchester with "unwillingness to have the war prosecuted to a full victory"; which Manchester answered by accusing Cromwell of having used expressions against the nobility, the Scots and Presbyterianism; of desiring to fill the army of the Eastern Association with Independents to prevent any accommodation; and of having vowed if he met the king in battle he would as lief fire his pistol at him as at anybody else.
Against those to whom you can object little but that they square not with you in every opinion concerning matters of religion."He had patronized Lilburne and welcomed all into his regiment, and the Independents had spread from his troops throughout the whole army.
Both the army and the parliament gave cold replies to his offers to negotiate; and Charles, on the 27th of December 1647, entered into the Engagement with the Scots by which he promised the establishment of Presbyterianism for three years, the suppression of the Independents and their sects, together with privileges for the Scottish nobles, while the Scots undertook to invade England and restore him to his throne.
His moderate and trimming attitude was understood neither by the extreme Independents nor by the Presbyterians.
He then marched north into Scotland, following the forces of Monro, and established a new government of the Argyle faction at Edinburgh; replying to the Independents who disapp-oved of his mild treatment of the Presbyterians, that he desired "union and right understanding between the godly people, Scots, English, Jews, Gentiles, Presbyterians, Anabaptists and all; ...
The insistence on an inward spiritual experience was the great contribution made by Friends ' At the time referred to, and during the Commonwealth, the pulpits of the cathedrals and churches were occupied by Episcopalians of the Richard Baxter type, Presbyterians, Independents and a few Baptists.
Such teaching necessarily brought Fox and his friends into conflict with all the religious bodies of England, and they were continually engaged in strife with the Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, Episcopalians and the wilder sectaries, such as the Ranters and the Muggletonians.
By solving the equations of transformation we obtain rE1 = a22x1 - a12x1, r = - a21x1 + allx2, aua12 where r = I = anon-anon; a21 a22 r is termed the determinant of substitution or modulus of transformation; we assure x 1, x 2 to be independents, so that r must differ from zero.
Independents acknowledge the two orders of presbyters and deacons, and differ from the Calvinistic presbyterians chiefly in this, that with them the church is complete in each single congregation, which is subject to no control of presbytery or synod.
The Socialist deputy, Mr Mezbffy, who wished to move an interpellation on the question, was howled down by the Independents with shouts of " Away with him!
As the Anglican divines soon ceased to attend the assembly, and the Independents were few in number, it was the work of Presbyterians only, the Scottish members carrying their proposal to make it an independent document and not a mere revision of the Thirty-nine Articles.
The English Independents and the modern Baptists, as well as the Mennonites, may be regarded as the historical continuation of lines of development going back to the Waldensians and the Bohemian Brethren, and passing down through the German, Dutch and Swiss Anabaptists.
The Republican party was still further weakened by the defection of a large body of independents, known as " Mugwumps."
During the Protectorate, with its practical establishment of Presbyterians, Independents and Baptists, the position of Congregationalism was really anomalous, in so far as any of its pastors became parish ministers,' and so received " public mainfenance " and were expected to administer the sacraments to all and sundry.
In practice they became Independents, after trying in some cases to create voluntary presbyteries, like Baxter's Associations, adopted partially in 1653-1660, in spite of repressive legislation.
Congregationalists, on the other hand, whether Independents or Baptists, remained on the whole Trinitarians, largely perhaps in virtue of their very polity, with its intimate relation between the piety of the people and that of the ministry.
Partial revivals of a warmer piety occurred in certain circles; and among the Independents in particular the new type of hymnody initiated by Isaac Watts (1707) helped not a little.
While the " rational " Presbyterians were repelled by it as " enthusiasm," the Independents had sufficient in common with its spirit to assimilate - after some distrust of its special ways and doctrines - its passion of Christlike pity for " those out of the way," and so to take their share in the wider evangelization of the people and the Christian philanthropy which flowed from the new inspiration.
During the 18th century, though the Independents increased at the expense of the Presbyterians, it is doubtful whether they kept pace with the increase of population, until the Evangelical Revival.
They belonged to that small body of British Independents who " separated " from the state church under the leadership of Richard Clifton or Clyfton (d.
They were all Puritans, but not all Independents - indeed, at first only the men from Leiden were, and they were throughout more enlightened and tolerant than the men of the other settlements.
The remarkable junction or fusion of the Independents or " Separatists " who emigrated from Leiden to Plymouth, Massachusetts, with the Puritan Nonconformists of Massachusetts Bay, modified Independency by the introduction of positive fraternal relations among the churches.
He was at this time identified with the Independents as opposed to the Presbyterian party.
He entered the academy of Dr Philip Doddridge at Northampton, became minister of a congregation formed by a fusion of Presbyterians and Independents at High Street Chapel, Shrewsbury (1741), received Presbyterian ordination there (1745), resigned in 1766 owing to ill-health, and lived in retirement at Kidderminster until his death.
When the Independents obtained the superiority Wallis adhered to the Solemn League and Covenant.
Notwithstanding the concessions, obstruction was continued by the Clericals and the extreme Independents, partly in the hope of compelling the crown to grant the Magyar words of command and partly out of antipathy towards the person of the young calvinist premier.
Tisza appealed to the country and suffered, on the 26th of January 1905, an overwhelming defeat at the hands of a coalition composed of dissentient Liberals, Clericals, Independents and a few Banffyites.
The elections for the first Philippine Assembly were held on the 30th of July 1907, and 31 Nationalists, 16 Progressists, 33 Independents and others were elected.
MUGWUMP, in American political slang, a name applied to any independent voter, and especially to those independents in the Republican party who refused to support James G.
Lower House: M mister,alists, 227; Conservatives, 105; Republicans, 42; Carlists, 9; Catalans, 7; Integrists, 2; Independents, ~ unattached, 3.
Between the Feuillants and the Jacobins, the independents, incapable of keeping to any fixed programme, vacillated sometimes to the right, sometimes to the left.
Deprived of the means of teaching, the Independents and other sectaries soon disappeared.
The shortening of the time was perhaps accounted for by the fact that the new House of Commons consisted of 331 Liberals, 249 Conservatives, 86 Home Rulers and Independents, Parnell thus holding the balance of parties.
The so-called Independents, such as Barras and Merlin of Douai, who were all Jacobins, but had stood aloof from the internal conflicts of the party, hated Royalism as much as ever and desired the continuance of the war which was essential to their power.
Constitutional monarchy and a republic. The government, mainly Thermidorian, trimmed between Moderates and Independents, and for this reason its actions were often inconsistent.
For some years after he entered, Oxford was ruled by the Independents, who, largely through Owen, unlike the Presbyterians, were among the first in England to advocate genuine religious toleration.
Revulsion from the dogmatic temper of the Presbyterians, and the unreasoning enthusiasm of the Independents favoured sympathy afterwards with Cambridge Platonists and other liberal Anglican churchmen.
In 1689 Presbyterians and Independents had coalesced, agreeing to drop both names and to support a common fund.
Both these movements conduced to the ultimate establishment of toleration, but for the present the Independents were to have their way.