On the north-west of the continent the coast-line is much broken, the chief indentations being Admiralty Gulf, Collier Bay and King Sound, on the shores of Tasman Land.
The deep indentations of the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland are surrounded by what is ethnologically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians have taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva.
With the exception of Green and Traverse bays, Lake Michigan has few indentations of the coast line, and except at the north end it is free from islands.
The coast-line has few indentations sufficient to afford safe harbourage.
A peculiar feature of the hydrography of Tamaulipas is the series of coastal lagoons formed by the building of new beaches across the indentations of the coast.
On the margins of the plateau there are several gaps or indentations, which can best be likened to gigantic trenches, like railway cuttings, as with an insensible gradient they climb to a higher level.
The coast-line has few indentations, the chief being the double gulf of the Ob and the Taz, separated from the Sea of Kara by an elongated peninsula (Samoyede), and from the bay of the Yenisei by another.
On the inner surface of both valves several well-defined muscular, vascular and ovarian impressions are observable; they form either indentations of greater or less size and depth, or occur as variously shaped projections.
And a shore-line, not counting minor indentations, of about loo m., and lying 1200 ft.
South of this point the coast curves outwards and is broken by peninsulas and indentations; to the north it is concave and bordered in many places by dunes and lagoons.
The larger indentations are the Gulf of 'Maracaibo, or Venezuela, which extends inland through the Lake of Maracaibo, with which it is connected by a comparatively narrow channel, and is formed by the peninsulas of Goajira and Paraguana; the Gulf of Paria, between the peninsula of that name and the island of Trinidad; the Gulf of Coro, opening into the Gulf of Maracaibo; the Gulf of Cariaco, between the peninsula of Araya and the state of Bermudez; the Golfo Triste, on the E.
Besides these there are a number of small indentations, sheltered anchorages formed by islands and reefs like that of Puerto Cabello, and estuaries and also open roadsteads, like those of La Guaira and Carupano, which serve important ports.
In height, a coast with deep indentations and lined with bold cliffs, a sea dotted with rocky islets, clear lakes, sparkling rivulets, deep gorges, and wooded glens are features of the attractive scenery here and in the vicinity.
The east coast, from Cape Shiriya (Shiriyazaki) in the north, to Cape Inuboye (Inuboes4ki) near Tokyo Bay, though abounding in small indentations, has only two large bays, those of Sendai and Matsushima; but southward from Tokyo Bay to Cape Satta (Satanomisaki) in KiOshi there are many capacious inlets which offer excellent anchorage, as the Gulf of Sagami (Sagaminada), the Bays of Suruga (Surugawan), lie (Isenumi) and Osaka, the Ku Channel, the Gulf of Tosa (Tosonada), &c., Opening into both the Pacific and the Sea of Japan and separating Shikoku and KiQshi from the main island as well as from each other, is the celebrated Inland Sea, one of the most picturesque sheets of water in the world.
It is not possible to enumerate here even the principal styles of ishime, but mention may be made of the zara-maki (broad-cast), in which the surface is finely but irregularly pitted after the manner of the face of a stone; the nashi-ji (pear-ground), in which we have a surface like the rind of a pear; the hari-ishime (needle ishime), where the indentations are so minute that they seem to have been made with the point of a needle; the gama-ishime, which is intended to imitate the skin of a toad; the tsuya-ishime, produced with a chisel sharpened so that its traces have a lustrous appearance; the ore-liuchi (broken-tool), a peculiar kind obtained with a jagged tool; and the gozam, which resembles the plaited surface of a fine straw mat.
The main inlet has also four smaller indentations - Quarantine Bay at its entrance, Yuzhnaya (Southern) Bay, which penetrates more than 1 m.
From theeastern coast the hills rise instantly but less abruptly, and the indentations are wider and deeper.
Save near the towns and in the cultivated district of Kabylia, the coast is bare and uninhabited; and in spite of numerous indentations, of which the most important going from west to east are the Gulf of Oran, the Gulf of Arzeu, the Bay of Algiers, and the gulfs of Bougie, Stora and Bona, there are few good harbours.
They may be divided into two classes; those of the plateau region which occupy lacustrine depressions and receive the drainage of the surrounding country; and the tide-water lagoons of the coast formed by the building up of new sand beaches across the indentations in the coast-line.
There is a marked difference between the Gulf and Pacific coastlines of Mexico in regard to their minor indentations and harbours.
There are two large indentations of the coast - the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and California.
The coast itself is broken and dangerous, there being many small indentations, which are usually masked by islands or shoals.
' Although the term Gulf of Guinea is applied generally to that part of the coast south of Cape Palmas and north of the mouth of the Congo, particular indentations have their peculiar designations.
The badges of the other four classes are round plaques, the first three with indented edges, the last plain; in the second class the dragons are in silver on a yellow and gold ground, the jewel is a cut coral; the grades differ in the colour, shape, &c., of the borders and indentations; in the third class the dragons are gold, the ground green, the jewel a sapphire; in the fourth the silver dragons are on a blue ground, the jewel a lapis lazuli; in the fifth green dragons on a silver ground, the jewel a pearl.
Along the Baltic (without including indentations), for the most part in flat sandy stretches covered with dunes.
Lateral segmentation affects the lamina, producing indentations, lobings or fissuring of its margins.
Long narrow alluvial strips called Nehrungen, lie between the last two haffs and the Baltic. The Baltic coast is further marked by large indentations, the Gulf of LUbeck, that of Pomerania, east of Rugen, and the semicircular Bay of Danzig between the promontories of Rixhoft and Brusterort.
Oases.In the western desert lie the five large oases of Egypt, namely, Siwa, Baharia, Farafra, Dakhla and Kharga or Great Oasis, occupying depressions in the plateau or, in the case of the last three, large indentations in the face of limestone escarpments which form the western versant of the Nile valley hills.
The bays on this coast are commonly broad indentations, and the rivers discharging into them are generally obstructed by bars.
The chief indentations are Annesley Bay, immediately south of Massawa, and Assab Bay in the south.
To 9° 2' N., a distance, without reckoning the indentations, of 170 m., the colony extends eastward 450 m.
Those of the desert region are only slight indentations in a remarkably uniform coast-line, sheltered on H arb ours.
The coast-line, following the indentations, is about 400 m.
That Zeno and Cleanthes crudely compared this presentation to the impression which a seal bears upon wax, with protuberances and indentations, while Chrysippus more prudently determined it vaguely as an occult modification or " mode " of mind, is an interesting but not intrinsically important detail But the mind is no mere passive recipient of impressions from without, in the view of the Stoics.
The only deep indentations of the Portuguese littoral are the lagoon of Aveiro and the estuaries of the Minho, Douro, Mondego, Tagus, Sado and Guadiana, in which are the principal harbours.
Extremities of the coast is only 225 m.; but, on account of projections and indentations, the coast-line measures not less than 2500 m.
The headlands, the deep indentations and the numerous islands in the bays and beyond produce a beautiful mingling of land and sea and give to the whole ocean front the appearance of a fringed and tasselled border; west of the mouth of the Kennebec River are a marshy shore and many low grassy islands; but east of this river the shore becomes more and more bold, rising in the precipitous cliffs and rounded summits of Mt Desert and Quoddy Head, 1527 and 1000 ft.
The western coast line, from the mouth of the Orange to the Cape peninsula, runs in a general south-east direction with no deep indentations save just south of 33° S.
The western coast, which contains no large indentations, is, in its southern part, backed by precipices of 300 or more ft.
- Madagascar has a very regular and compact form, with few indentations considering its great extent of shore-line.
On the north there arc numerous small indentations, many of which form convenient harbours, although the current flowing along the coast from the west often leaves in the stiller water at their mouths Coaat-Unes, obstruction bars.
The best harbours are to be found on the rias or fjord-like indentations in the W.
To 18° N., a distance following the indentations of the shore of over 400 m.
These indentations are numerous but not deep, the general trend of the coast being S.S.E.
On the east coast lies the peculiarly-shaped Maria Island, almost severed by deep indentations on the east and west.
Edge of the plateau is much broken by deep indentations of stream valleys, and drops suddenly downward about moo ft.